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vertebral anomalies

incidental findings..cervical ribs, transitional vertebrae (LS junction)

spina bifida

posterior defect of the spinal cord resulting from failure of the posterior elements to fuse properly


"marble bone" very dense, white bones

osteogenesis imperfecta

brittle bones, disorder of connective tissue unusual blue color of normally white sclera of the eye


dwarfism, diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plate

hip dysplasia

incomplete acetabulum formation. most common in females

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic systemic disease, joints of hands and feet, no known cause,3x more common in females


degenerative joint disease, normal w/ aging process, loss of joint cartilage, affects weight bearing joints

infectious arthritis

pyogenic (pus forming) organisms gain entry into joint


inflammation of bursae from repeated physical activity, trauma, rheumatoid, gout, or infection

rotator cuff tear

tear of musculotendinous structure in shoulder

meniscal tear of knee

common cause of knee pain


(bacterial) infection of bone marrow and bone caused by infectious organisms that reach bone by spread from another site of infection or by direct introduction, after trauma or surgery

tuberculous osteomyelitis

rare today, most commonly involves T and L spine also known as Pott's disease


mass of bone decreased but normal composition


insufficient mineralization of adult skeleton


vit D deficiency, disease of infancy and childhood that is equal to oseomalacia in the adult skeleton


disorder in matabolism of purine (component of nucleic acid) increase in blood level of uric acid


chronic metabolic disease of skeleton, destruction of bone, followed by a reparative process results in weakened, deformed, and thickened bones that fracture easily

fibrous dysplasia

begins during childhood, proliferation of fibrous tissue w in medullary cavity, loss of trabecular markings and widening of bone

ischemic necrosis

loss of blood supply

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