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110 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Test

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anatomy
study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts
physiology
study of how the body and its parts work or function
gross anatomy
large structures
easily observable
microscopic anatomy
very small structures
can only be viewed with a microscope
organ system overview
keeps inside in
forms the external body covering
protects deeper tissue from injury
includes hair and nails
skeletal
protects and supports body organs
provides muscle attachment for movement
muscular system
produces movement
maintains posture
nervous system
fast-acting control system
responds to internal and external change
endocrine system
secretes regulatory hormones
cardiovascular
transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste
lymphatic system
returns fluids to blood vessels
cleanses the blood
involved in immunity
respiratory system
keeps blood supplied with oxygen
removes carbon dioxide
digestive
breaks down food
allows for nutrient absorption into blood
eliminates indigestible material
urinary system
eliminates nitrogenous wastes
maintains acid-base balance
regulates water and electrolytes
reproductive system
produces offspring
necessary life functions
-maintain boundaries
-movement
locomotion
movement of substances
-responsiveness
ability to sense changes and react
-digestion
break-down and absorption of nutrients
-metabolism-chemical reactions within body
produces energy
makes body structures
-excretion
eliminates waste from metabolic reactions
-reproduction
produces future generation
-growth
increases cell size and number of cells
survival needs
nutrients- chemicals for energy and cell building
includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals
oxygen- required for chemical reactions
survival needs continued
water-60 to 80 percent of body wieght
metabolic reaction is provided here
stable body temperature
atmospheric pressure- must be appropiate
homeostasis
maintenace of a stable internal environment
-dynamic state of equilibrium
what is homeostasis necessary for?
normal body functioning and to sustain life
homeostatic imbalance?
a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
maintaining homeostasis- the body communicates through what?
neural and hormonal control systems
maintaining homeostasis -receptor
-responds to changes in the environment stimuli
-sends information to control center
maintaining homeostasis- control center
-determines set point
-analyzes information
-determines appropriate response
maintaining homeostasis- effector
-provides a means for response to the stimuli
negative feedback
-includes most homeostatic control mechanisms
-shuts off original stimulus, pr reduces its intensity
-works like a household thermostat
positive feedback
-increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther
-int he body this only occurs in blood clotting and during childbirth
language of anatomy
special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding
language of anatomy- exact terms are used for:
position
direction
regions
structures
sagittal section
divides the body or organ into left and right parts
median or midsagittal
section divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts
frontal section or coronal
divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts
tranverse or cross section
divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts
dorsal body cavity
-cranial cavity houses the brain
-spinal cavity houses the spinal cord
ventral body cavity
thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs and other
-abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
energy
the ability to do work
energy types
chemical
electrical- cells, nervous system, membrane
mechanical
radiant-travels in waves, magnomagnetic system, rays
elements
fundamental units of matter
96 % of the body is made from four elements
-substances that will be broken down with normal chemicals
-hydrogen
-carbon
-oxygen
-nitrogen
atoms
building blocks of elements
need constant supply of energy to live
potential energy-stored energy
nucleus
-protons
-neutrons
outside of nucleus
-electrons
atomic number
equal to the number of protons an atom contains
atomic mass
sum of protons and neutrons
isotopes
-have the same number of protons
-vary in number of neutrons
atomic weight of isotopes
-close to mass number of most abundant isotope
-atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation
radioisotope
-heavy isotope
-tends to be unstable
-decomposes to more stable isotope
radioactivity
process of spontaneous atomic decay
molecule
two or more like atoms combined chemically
compound
two or more different atoms combined chemically
atoms are united by chemical bonds
atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken
electrons occupy what?
energy levels called electron shells
-each shell has distinct properties
electrons closest to nucleus are what?
most strongly attracted
-number of electrons has an upper limit
-shells closest to nucleus fill first
bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell (valence shell)
full valence shells dont form bonds
atoms are stable (inert) when what?
when outermost shell is complete
atoms shells
shell 1- max 2
shell 2- max 9
shell 3- max 18
valence shell is what?
most likely to interact/bond
atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to complete their outermost orbitals and reach a stable state
...
rule of eights:
-atoms are considered stable when their outermost orbital has 8 electrons
-the exception to this rule of eights is Shell 1, which can only hold 2 electrons
valence shells:
are not full and are unstable
-tend to gain, lose, or share electrons
allow for bond formation, which produces stable valence
ionic bonds:
form when elctrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
ions
-changed particles
anions-neg
cations-pos
either donate or accept electrons
...
most compounds formed by ionic bonds are salts
...
covalent bonds:
-atoms become stable through shared electrons
-single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons
-double convalent bonds share two pairs of electrons
hydrogen bonds:
-weak chemical bonds
-hydrogen is attracted to the negative portion of polar molecule
-provides attraction between molecules
synthesis reaction
-atoms or molecules combine
-energy is absorbed for bond formation
decomposition reaction
-molecule is broken down
-chemical energy is released
anabolic build- growth and repair/construction
catabolic- destructive processes/decomposition
exchange reaction-
-involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions
-switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made
organic compounds:
-contain carbon
-most are covalently bonded
-example: C6 H12O6 (glucose)
water:
-most abundant inorganic compound
-vital properties
-high heat capacity
- polarity/solvent properties
-chemical reactivity
-cushioning
things that affect rate of chemical reaction:
-increase kinetic energy
-increase temperature
-increase concentration
-decrease particle size
-presence of catalyst
salts: (calcium)
-easily dissociate into ions in the prescense of water
-vital to many body functions
-include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents
-chloride, potassium, electrolytes
acids:
-release hydrogen ions
-are proton donors
bases:
-release hydroxul ions
-are proton acceptors
neutralization reaction
-acids and bases react to form water and a salt
pH7
neutral
pH below 7
acidic
pH above 7
basic
buffers:
chemicals that can regulate pH change
carbohydrates:
-contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-include sugars and starches
-classified according to size
monosaccharides-
simple sugars
( glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose
disaccharides-
2 simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
polysaccharides-
long-branching chains of linked simple sugars
carbs are simple sugars(monosaccharides)
...
monosaccharides vs disaccharides
glucose (1) fructose (2) galactose (3)

sucrose(1 plus 2) lactose (1 plus 3) maltose (1 plus 1)
functions of carbs:
structural purposes
genetic material
markers on cells
lipids-
contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen
insoluble in water
carb classic example-glucose
starches-plants, poly-many
common lipids found in human body:
neutral fats(triglycerides)
-found in fat deposits
-composed of fatty acids and glycerol
-source of stored energy
phospholipids
-form cell membrane
steroids
-include cholestorol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones
lipids-cholesterol-
basis for all steroids made in the body
proteins:
made of amino acids
---contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
proteins account for what?
over half of the body's organic matter
proteins provide what?
construction materials for body tissues
proteins play a vital role in what?
cell function
proteins have an amino acid structure:
contain an amine group
contain an acid group
vary only by R groupls
greater than 55 amino acids-protein
less than 55 amino accids-polypeptide
fibrous proteins:
structural proteins
appear in body structures
examples include collagen and keratin
stable
proteins can be fibrous(structural) or globular (functional) antibodies, hormones, enzymes
...
globular proteins:
functional proteins
function as antibodies or enzymes
can be denatured
enzymes act as what?
biological catalysts
enzymes increase the rate of what?
chemical reactions
nucleic acid provides what?
blueprint for life
nucleotide bases:
A or adenine
T or thymine
G or guanine
C or cytosine
U or oracil
(make DNA and RNA)
(dictate protein structure)
enzymes are catalysts but not consumed in the process/not used up
...
deoxyribonucleic acid: (DNA)
-organized by complimentary bases to form double helix
-replicates before cell division
-provides instructions for every protein in the body
adenosine triphosphate (ATP):
-chemical energy used by all cells
-energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond
-ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels
What breaks bonds?
hydrolisis