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study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts


study of how the body and its parts work or function

gross anatomy

large structures
easily observable

microscopic anatomy

very small structures
can only be viewed with a microscope

organ system overview

keeps inside in
forms the external body covering
protects deeper tissue from injury
includes hair and nails


protects and supports body organs
provides muscle attachment for movement

muscular system

produces movement
maintains posture

nervous system

fast-acting control system
responds to internal and external change

endocrine system

secretes regulatory hormones


transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste

lymphatic system

returns fluids to blood vessels
cleanses the blood
involved in immunity

respiratory system

keeps blood supplied with oxygen
removes carbon dioxide


breaks down food
allows for nutrient absorption into blood
eliminates indigestible material

urinary system

eliminates nitrogenous wastes
maintains acid-base balance
regulates water and electrolytes

reproductive system

produces offspring

necessary life functions

-maintain boundaries
movement of substances
ability to sense changes and react
break-down and absorption of nutrients
-metabolism-chemical reactions within body
produces energy
makes body structures
eliminates waste from metabolic reactions
produces future generation
increases cell size and number of cells

survival needs

nutrients- chemicals for energy and cell building
includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals
oxygen- required for chemical reactions

survival needs continued

water-60 to 80 percent of body wieght
metabolic reaction is provided here
stable body temperature
atmospheric pressure- must be appropiate


maintenace of a stable internal environment
-dynamic state of equilibrium

what is homeostasis necessary for?

normal body functioning and to sustain life

homeostatic imbalance?

a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

maintaining homeostasis- the body communicates through what?

neural and hormonal control systems

maintaining homeostasis -receptor

-responds to changes in the environment stimuli
-sends information to control center

maintaining homeostasis- control center

-determines set point
-analyzes information
-determines appropriate response

maintaining homeostasis- effector

-provides a means for response to the stimuli

negative feedback

-includes most homeostatic control mechanisms
-shuts off original stimulus, pr reduces its intensity
-works like a household thermostat

positive feedback

-increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther
-int he body this only occurs in blood clotting and during childbirth

language of anatomy

special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding

language of anatomy- exact terms are used for:


sagittal section

divides the body or organ into left and right parts

median or midsagittal

section divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts

frontal section or coronal

divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts

tranverse or cross section

divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts

dorsal body cavity

-cranial cavity houses the brain
-spinal cavity houses the spinal cord

ventral body cavity

thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs and other
-abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs


anything that occupies space and has mass


the ability to do work

energy types

electrical- cells, nervous system, membrane
radiant-travels in waves, magnomagnetic system, rays


fundamental units of matter

96 % of the body is made from four elements

-substances that will be broken down with normal chemicals


building blocks of elements

need constant supply of energy to live

potential energy-stored energy



outside of nucleus


atomic number

equal to the number of protons an atom contains

atomic mass

sum of protons and neutrons


-have the same number of protons
-vary in number of neutrons

atomic weight of isotopes

-close to mass number of most abundant isotope
-atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation


-heavy isotope
-tends to be unstable
-decomposes to more stable isotope


process of spontaneous atomic decay


two or more like atoms combined chemically


two or more different atoms combined chemically

atoms are united by chemical bonds

atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken

electrons occupy what?

energy levels called electron shells
-each shell has distinct properties

electrons closest to nucleus are what?

most strongly attracted
-number of electrons has an upper limit
-shells closest to nucleus fill first

bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell (valence shell)

full valence shells dont form bonds

atoms are stable (inert) when what?

when outermost shell is complete

atoms shells

shell 1- max 2
shell 2- max 9
shell 3- max 18

valence shell is what?

most likely to interact/bond

atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to complete their outermost orbitals and reach a stable state


rule of eights:

-atoms are considered stable when their outermost orbital has 8 electrons
-the exception to this rule of eights is Shell 1, which can only hold 2 electrons

valence shells:

are not full and are unstable
-tend to gain, lose, or share electrons
allow for bond formation, which produces stable valence

ionic bonds:

form when elctrons are completely transferred from one atom to another

-changed particles
either donate or accept electrons


most compounds formed by ionic bonds are salts


covalent bonds:

-atoms become stable through shared electrons
-single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons
-double convalent bonds share two pairs of electrons

hydrogen bonds:

-weak chemical bonds
-hydrogen is attracted to the negative portion of polar molecule
-provides attraction between molecules

synthesis reaction

-atoms or molecules combine
-energy is absorbed for bond formation

decomposition reaction

-molecule is broken down
-chemical energy is released

anabolic build- growth and repair/construction

catabolic- destructive processes/decomposition

exchange reaction-

-involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions
-switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made

organic compounds:

-contain carbon
-most are covalently bonded
-example: C6 H12O6 (glucose)


-most abundant inorganic compound
-vital properties
-high heat capacity
- polarity/solvent properties
-chemical reactivity

things that affect rate of chemical reaction:

-increase kinetic energy
-increase temperature
-increase concentration
-decrease particle size
-presence of catalyst

salts: (calcium)

-easily dissociate into ions in the prescense of water
-vital to many body functions
-include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents
-chloride, potassium, electrolytes


-release hydrogen ions
-are proton donors


-release hydroxul ions
-are proton acceptors

neutralization reaction

-acids and bases react to form water and a salt



pH below 7


pH above 7



chemicals that can regulate pH change


-contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-include sugars and starches
-classified according to size


simple sugars
( glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose


2 simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis


long-branching chains of linked simple sugars

carbs are simple sugars(monosaccharides)


monosaccharides vs disaccharides

glucose (1) fructose (2) galactose (3)

sucrose(1 plus 2) lactose (1 plus 3) maltose (1 plus 1)

functions of carbs:

structural purposes
genetic material
markers on cells


contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen
insoluble in water

carb classic example-glucose

starches-plants, poly-many

common lipids found in human body:

neutral fats(triglycerides)
-found in fat deposits
-composed of fatty acids and glycerol
-source of stored energy
-form cell membrane
-include cholestorol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones


basis for all steroids made in the body


made of amino acids
---contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur

proteins account for what?

over half of the body's organic matter

proteins provide what?

construction materials for body tissues

proteins play a vital role in what?

cell function

proteins have an amino acid structure:

contain an amine group
contain an acid group
vary only by R groupls

greater than 55 amino acids-protein

less than 55 amino accids-polypeptide

fibrous proteins:

structural proteins
appear in body structures
examples include collagen and keratin

proteins can be fibrous(structural) or globular (functional) antibodies, hormones, enzymes


globular proteins:

functional proteins
function as antibodies or enzymes
can be denatured

enzymes act as what?

biological catalysts

enzymes increase the rate of what?

chemical reactions

nucleic acid provides what?

blueprint for life

nucleotide bases:

A or adenine
T or thymine
G or guanine
C or cytosine
U or oracil
(make DNA and RNA)
(dictate protein structure)

enzymes are catalysts but not consumed in the process/not used up


deoxyribonucleic acid: (DNA)

-organized by complimentary bases to form double helix
-replicates before cell division
-provides instructions for every protein in the body

adenosine triphosphate (ATP):

-chemical energy used by all cells
-energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond
-ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels

What breaks bonds?


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