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34 terms

NUR 106 (UNIT 2) CH 9 Antibiotics

NUR 106 Pharmacology CCTC Fall 2011 Cheryl L DeGraw
STUDY
PLAY
Types of antibiotics
Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal
bacteriostatic
Those substances that prevent the growth of bacteria
bactericidal
Those substances that kill bacteria directly
Signs of infection
-fever
-lethargy
-slow-wave sleep induction (lots of sleep but no rest)
-classic signs of inflammation (redness, swelling, heat and pain)
Goal of Antibiotic therapy
Decrease the population of the invading bacteria to a point where the human immune system can effectively deal with the invader
Selecting Treatment
-identification of the causative organism
-based on the culture report, an antibiotic is chosen that has been known to be effective at treating the invading organism
bacteria classification
-gram positive
-gram negative
-aerobic
-anaerobic
gram positive
the cell wall retains a stain or resists decolorization with alcohol
gram negative
the cell wall loses a stain or is decolorized by alcohol
aerobic
depend on oxygen for survival
anaerobic
do not use oxygen
bacteria and resistance to antibiotics
-adapt to their environment
-the longer an antibiotic has been in use, the greater the chance that the bacteria will develop into a resistant strain
Aminoglycosides
A group of powerful antibiotics used to treat serious infections caused by gram-negative aerobic bacilli;
IV or IM
Aminoglycosides Prototype
Gentamicin (Garamycin)
Tobramycin (eye drops): for bacterial conjuctivitis and corneal abrasions
Aminoglycosides - contraindications
-known allergies, renal or hepatic disease, hearing loss
Aminoglycosides - adverse effects
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity are the most significant; will worsen with diuretics and neuromuscular blockers
Carbapenems
-broad spectrum
-prototype: Ertapenem (Invanz)
-indications: community acquired pnemonia and complicated GU infections
-IV or IM route
cephalosporins
similar to penicillin in structure and activity
cephalosporins - action
interfere with the cell wall-building ability of bacteria when they divide
cephalosporins - indications
treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria
cephalosporins - pharmacokinetics
-well absorbed from the GI tract
-metabolized in the liver, excreted in the urine
cephalosporins - contraindications
allergies to cephalosporins or penicillin
cephalosporins - adverse effects
GI tract; nephrotoxicity
cephalosporins - drug to drug interactions
ETOH (alcohol - make you ill when you drink)
cephalosporins Prototype
Cefaclor
Bone Marrow Depression is the WORST reaction
Oral
Fluoroquinolones
Relatively new class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity
Fluoroquinolones - indications
treating infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria. Includes urinary tract, respiratory tract and skin infections
Fluoroquinolones - actions
interferes with DNA replication in susceptible gram-negative bacteria, preventing cell reproduction
Fluoroquinolones - Pharmacokinetics
-absorbed in the GI tract
-metabolized in the liver
-excreted in urine and feces
Fluoroquinolones - contraindications
-known allergy, pregnancy, or lactating women; seizures and renal dysfunction
Fluoroquinolones - adverse effects
headache, dizziness and GI upset
Fluoroquinolones - drug to drug interactions
antacids (take 4 hours apart)
Fluoroquinolones - Prototype
ciprofloxacin (used for UTI)
Oral route
Penicillins and Penicillinase - resistant antibiotics
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