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46 terms

CHEM 1110 Ch 1

Basic Concepts of Chemistry
STUDY
PLAY
hypothesis
a tentative explanation or prediction based on experimental observations
quantitative
numerical data; i.e., temperature
qualitative
non-numerical observations; i.e. color or physical appearance
law
a concise verbal or mathematical statement of a behavior or a relation that seems always to be the same under the same conditions
theory
a well-tested, unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them
green chemistry
a way of doing chemistry with lower pollutant levels
state
solid, liquid, gas
kinetic-molecular theory of matter
helps interpret properties; all matter consists of extremely tiny particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) that are in constant motion increase in temp. = increase in motion
macroscopic
experiments and observations (i.e., what color, dissolves in water, conducts electricity, react with oxygen?)
submicroscopic
particulate; studying individual particles
heterogeneous
a mixture in which the properties in one region or sample are different from those in another region or sample
homogeneous
a mixture in which the properties are the same throughout a region or sample; often called "solutions"
purified
when a mixture is separated into its pure components
elements
composed only of one type of atom (i.e. hydrogen, oxygen, etc...)
atom
smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic chemical properties of that element
chemical bonds
an interaction between two or more atoms that holds them together by reducing the potential energy of their electrons
chemical compound
a pure substance composed 2 or more different elements held together by chemical bonds
ions
electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms
molecules
the smallest discrete units that retain the composition and chemical characteristics of the compound
chemical formula
represents the composition of a compound (i.e. H2O, NaCl, etc..)
physical properties
properties that can be observed and measured without changing the composition of a substance
density
the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume
temperature
a physical property that determines the direction of heat flow in an object on contact with another object; affects the numerical values of an objects properties such as density
solubility
what mass of substance can dissolve in a given volume of water or other solvent?
malleability
the ability of a solid to deformed
ductility
the ability of a substance to be drawn into a wire
viscosity
how easily will a liquid flow?
extensive properties
depend upon the amount of a substance present (i.e. mass and volume)
intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of a substance present (i.e. melting point)
physical changes
changes in physical properties where the identity of the substance is preserved but the physical state, gross size, or shape may have changed
chemical change
one or more substances are transformed into one or more different substances
chemical equation
the representation of a change using chemical formulas
reactant
a starting substance in a chemical reaction
product
a substance formed in a chemical reaction
chemical property
indicates whether and sometimes how readily a material undergoes a chemical change with another material
kinetic energy
energy associated with motion
thermal energy
the motion of atoms, molecules, or ions at the submicroscopic (particulate) level
mechanical energy
the motion or macroscopic objects such as moving a tennis ball or a car
electrical energy
the movement of electrons in a conductor
acoustic energy
the compression and expansion of the spaces between molecules in the transmission of sound
potential energy
the energy that results from an objects position
gravitational energy
i.e. energy possessed by a ball held above a floor and by water at the top of a water wheel
chemical energy
energy stored in fuels
true
almost all chemical reactions involve a change in chemical energy
electrostatic energy
energy associated with the separation of two electrical charges
law of conservation of energy
energy can neither be created nor destroyed; the total energy of the universe is constant