Unit 1 The Americas: Worlds Meet

Chapters 1 - 4 of the Glencoe :The American Journey
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Marco Polo
An Italian explorer who traveled across the Gobi desert into China. Wrote a book titled Travels in which he described the wonders he witnessed on his trip to Asia.
Mansa Musa
Mali was a powerful kingdom in Africa whose people developed their own trade routes across the desert to North Africa;
Mali's territory included Ghana by the late 1200s;
Mainly agricultural but gold mines enriched the kingdom;
Mali's greatest king, ruled from 1312 - 1337; Most powerful, the richest, most fortunate, most feared by his enemies, and the most able to do good to those around him; Muslim, made a pilgrimage to Mecca, traveled with a huge military escort and 500 royal servants who carried gold to distribute along the way
Returned to Mali with an Arab architect who built great mosques, Muslim houses of worship, in the capital of Timbuktu which became an important center of Islamic art and learning
Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry of Portugal helped lay the groundwork for the era of exploration
Set up a center for exploration at Sarges on the southwestern tip of Portugal;
Planned voyages, analyzed the reports his crew brought back;
School Of Navigation - astronomers, geographers, and mathematicians shared their knowledge with Portuguese sailors and shipbuilders
Mapmakers updated the charts each time new knowledge was brought back
Christopher Columbus
An Italian sailor sponsored by Spain;
He sailed west from the Canary Islands in search of a new trade route.
In October of 1492 Columbus reached what is now the Bahamas.
He later made three more voyages for Spain exploring Hispaniola, Cuba, Jamaica, parts of Central and South America.
He claimed the lands for Spain and established settlements.
Amerigo Vespucci
1502
the Americas were named in honor of him
sailed along South America's coast and concluded that South America was a continent not part of Asia
Ferdinand Magellan
1520 Portuguese seaman sailing for Spain who reached the southernmost tip of South America;
Named the Pacific Ocean because the water was pacific.
He died in the Philippine Islands.
His crew continued west and were the first known people to circumnavigate the earth
Hernan Cortes
1519
Landed on the east coast of present day Mexico
Looking for gold and glory
Came with more than 500 soldiers, some horses and a few cannons
Formed alliances with the Native Americans that the Aztec had conquered and who were being forced to pay the Aztecs for protection or tribute
Montezuma
Aztec emperor; Welcomed Cortes and his soldiers; provided them with a palace and food and drink; Cortes took advantage and made Montezuma his prisoner; Aztecs rebelled in the spring of 1520; Montezuma was killed in the fighting
Francisco Pizarro
1532
Conquistador sailed down the Pacific coast of South America with about 180 Spanish soldiers
Captured the Inca ruler, Alahualpa, who was later executed wrongly
Destroyed much of the Inca Army
Gained control of most of the vast Inca Empire
Atahualpa
Inca ruler who was captured by Pizarro; Wrongly accused of crimes and executed by the Spanish; Inca Empire collapsed without him
Martin Luther
1517
German priest, nailed a list of complaints about the Catholic Church on a local church door. Declared the Bible was the only true guide for Christians. Rejected many church practices and the authority of the Pope because they were not in the Bible. Believed that faith rather than good deeds was the way to salvation.
Sir Francis Drake
English adventurer who had attacked Spanish ships and ports, Queen Elizabeth knighted him for his raids
John Smith
27 year old experienced explorer who helped Jamestown settlers survive the first two years by forcing them to work, explore the area and get corn from the local Native Americans
Squanto
one of two Native Americans (Samoset was the other one) who befriended the colonists in the spring and showed them how to grow corn, beans, pumpkins and where to hunt and fish - helped them make peace with the Wampanoag people and sign a treaty with their leader Massasoit in 1621
Roger Williams
minister who settled Rhode Island in 1644 as a safe place for dissenters - first place in America where people of all faiths could worship freely- believed people should not be persecuted for their religious practice and that government should not force people to worship in a certain way - believed it was wrong to take land away from Native Americans
King Philip
1675 - Wampanoag chief, Metacomet, but know to the settlers as King Philip - wanted to stop the settlers from moving onto Native American lands. Tried to form a federation of local peoples and many New England groups joined with him. Settlers executed 3 Wampanoags for murder and Metacomet's forces then attacked towns across the region, killing hundreds of people. King Philip's War ended in defeat for the Wampanoag and their allies and it destroyed the power of the Native Americans in New England. The colonists were then free to expand beyond their settlements and began taking over Native American land.
William Penn
1681, wealthy English Quaker, received land as payment for a debt King Charles II owed Penn's father - king gave him a tract of land I America stretching inland from the Delaware River; new colony, Pennsylvania, nearly as large as England. "Holy Experiment" chance to put Quaker ideals into practice
Philadelphia, city of brotherly love
Penn believed land belonged to Native Americans and that settlers should pay for it
Sir George Calvert
Lord Baltimore; wanted to form a colony that would be a safe place for Catholics who were being persecuted in England.
He died but his son inherited the colony and name it Maryland;began in 1634
Nathaniel Bacon
young planter in western Virginia who opposed the colonial government because it was controlled by easterners; led attacks on Native America villages in 1676; his army sent the Virginia governor, William Berkeley, into exile because he had made an agreement with the Native Americans to not move farther into their territory. Bacon's Rebellion showed that settlers would not be limited to the coast. Made the colonial government form a militia to control the Native Americans and opened up more land for settlement
James Oglethorpe
received a charter for Georgia, the last British colony set up in America in 1733, where debtors and poor people could make a fresh start. Oglethorpe built forts as a barrier against the Spanish who were in Florida
Duke of York
was the proprietary owner of the New York colony which was given to him by his brother, King Charles II.
New Jersey
given to Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret by the Duke of York. Also was a proprietary colony until 1702 when it became a royal colony
John Locke
an English philosopher,
wrote a constitution for the colony Carolina that covered topics such as land division, social ranking, principles and rights
Nation state
centralized states that began to emerge in western Europe in the 1400s
strong monarchs came into power in Spain, Portugal, England, and France
established national laws, courts, taxes and armies that replaced those of local lords
the monarchs then began to look for ways to increase trade and make their countries stronger and wealthier; which led to the age of exploration and discovery
Renaissance
late 1300s to 1500s; period of intellectual and artistic creativity, means rebirth in French, refers to the renewed interest in classical Greek and roman learning. Changed the way Europeans though about themselves and the world and paved the way for an age of discovery and exploration
Circumnavigate
sail around the world
Conquistador
Spanish explorers who received special grants from Spain. The grants gave them the right to explore and establish settlements in the Americas as long as they shared the wealth with the Spanish crown
Encomienda
in the 1500s, the Spanish government granted conquistadors the right to demand taxes or labor from Native American living on the land. This turned the Native Americans into slaves
Plantation
a large commercial farm that used slaves to perform all the labor. Tobacco and sugarcane were the primary crops of the plantations.
Protestant Reformation
great religious and historical movement, started by Martin Luther, 1517
Mercantilism
economic theory which was popular in the 1500s which stated that a nation's power is based on its wealth
Columbian Exchange
the bringing together of two parts of the globe by the voyages of Columbus and other European explorers that previously had no contact - Europe, Asia and Africa with the Americas - and the exchange of plants, animals and diseases that greatly altered life on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean
Northwest Passage
explorers during the 1500s and 1600s hoped to discover a direct water route to Asia through the Americas
Spanish Armada
Spain's fleet of warships sent by King Philip II to conquer England; it was defeated in 1588 and it marked the end of Spanish control of the seas
Charter
documents sought by merchants from King James I, granting the right to organize settlements in an area
Joint-stock company
a company in which investors bought stock or part ownership in return for a share of its future profits ; the Virginia Company of London was one; it sent 144 settlers in 3 ships in December 1606 to build a new colony in North America
Indentured servant
people who came to the colonies who agreed to work without pay for a certain length of time to pay for their passage; not everyone came to the colonies of their own free will ; English criminals and prisoners of war were shipped to the colonies and had to work for 7 years to earn their release
Constitution
plan of government
Mayflower Compact
pledged loyalty to England. Declared the settlers' intention of forming a political system; promised to obey laws passed for the general good of the colony; was a necessary step in the development of representative government
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
was the first written constitution in American. It described the organization of representative government in detail.
Debtors
people who were not able to repay debts. Georgia was a debtors colony set up by James Oglethorpe in 1733
Subsistence farming
farming that only produces just enough to meet the farmer's families needs with little leftover to sell or exchange
Triangular trade
shape of trade routes between colonies, England, Europe, Africa and West Indies in which slaves, manufactured goods, and crops where traded
Middle passage
ship's route between Africa and the West Indies in which slaves traveled
Cash crop
crops grown by New York and Pennsylvania farmers that were used by their families but were also sold in colonial markets and overseas - included tobacco, rice, wheat, indigo
How did cash crops affect the development of slavery?
The economies of the Middle Colonies and the Southern Colonies depended upon the sale of cash crops, such as wheat and corn in the Middle Colonies and tobacco, rice and indigo in the Southern colonies. As more plantations developed and grew larger, the need for workers increased. Indentured servants grew scarce and got more expensive so plantations turned to enslaved Africans to work the farms.
How were the different colonies governed?
There were three types of governments in the colonies:
1.Proprietary Colony: Delaware, Mary and Pennsylvania - Proprietors were individuals or groups to who Britain granted land - the individual or group was free to rule as they wished. Proprietors appointed the governor and the members of the upper house of the legislature. The colonists elected the lower house.
2.Charter Colonies: Connecticut and Rhode Island - Settlers were given a charter or a grant of rights and privileges to establish charter colonies. These colonists elected their own governors and the members of legislature. Great Britain had the right to approve the governor, but the governor could not veto the acts of the legislature
3.Royal Colonies: Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia - Britain directly ruled all royal colonies. The king appointed a governor and council known as the upper house and the colonists elected an assembly called the lower house. The governor and the members of the council usually did what the British leaders told them to do.
How did slavery begin in the Americas?
West African tribes enslaved the tribes they defeated. Some of the enslaved people were sold to Arab slave traders and others were forced to work in gold mines or farms. When the Europeans arrived in Africa, enslaved Africans began to be shipped to America in exchange for goods. Slavery became part of the triangular trade. The route between Africa and the West Indies was called the Middle Passage. It was a terrible journey in which many people died. When they arrived in American ports, they were sold the slave market to work as laborers on plantations. As the number of plantations grew, the needs for workers increased. Slavery played an important role in the economic success of the southern colonies. Southern farmers grew cash crops of tobacco, rice, indigo, corn and wheat. All of these crops required a great deal of labor. At first the farmers used indentured servants but they became scarce and expensive and the planters began using enslaved Africans instead.
What is the difference between Puritans and Separatists? Who were the Pilgrims?
Puritans were Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church. Separatists were Protestants who wanted to leave the Anglican Church and set up their own churches - persecuted in England. The Pilgrims were a group of Separatists who made a deal with the Virginia Company to settle in Virginia and practice their religion freely. They called themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious nature. In return, they would give the company a share of the profits. Only 35 of the 102 passengers who were Mayflower were Pilgrims but the all the early settlers were called Pilgrims because the Separatists beliefs shaped life in the Plymouth colony.
How did the Spanish, French, Dutch and English differ in their early colonial activities?
French:
Founded Quebec in 1608
1663 New France became a royal colony
Went far into the interior of North America establishing forts and trading post
France established colonies along the St. Lawrence River in the North and the Mississippi River in the South.
French colonization developed slowly, mostly interested in furs, trading and fishing
French were much more friendly with Native Americans they tried to convert them to Catholicism but did not try and change their customs. They lived among them, learned their language and respected their ways.
Spanish:
Spain controlled much of South America, Central America and the Caribbean.
Spain moved up through Mexico to establish settlements in New Mexico, Arizona and Texas
Spain controlled Florida and built missions along the Pacific coast in present day California
Spain forced Native Americans to convert to Christianity and forced them into slavery
Dutch:
Controlled the lands between the two groups of English colonies (North - Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island South - Maryland and Virginia)
New Amsterdam - main settlement - located on Manhattan Island
Excellent seaport - became a center of shipping to and from the Americas
Dutch West India Company - wanted to increase settlers in colony - offered large estates for
patroons - people who could bring at least 50 settlers to work the land - ruled like kings - had their own courts and laws - settlers owed the patroons labor and a share of their crops
1664 - English sent a fleet to attack New Amsterdam - Dutch were unprepared and surrendered
Why did the English settle in North America?
After defeating the Spanish Armada, England became more interested in establishing colonies in North America. They wanted to claim and protect land in North America. England wanted to profit from resources and trade. Most of the early English settlements were founded by private investors who asked the English monarch for charters that granted the right to establish colonies in America. Joint-stock companies, such as The Virginia Company, sent settlers to America to search for gold and establish trade in fish and furs. England was hoping to make a profit, increase her resources and expand trade. When the Virginia Company began to have financial troubles, England took over governing the American colonies.
How did the kingdoms of Africa between A.D. 400 and A.D. 1600 influence European trade?
Ghana, Mali and Songhai were among the most powerful empires in the history of Africa They controlled trade routes through force and taxes. They traded in slaves and gold among other things. The existence of these kingdoms helped the Europeans in their quest for trade
How did the growth of trade influence European exploration in the late 15th Century?
Merchants from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe began working together to provide trade between Asia and Europe.
Wealthy Europeans created an increased demand for spices, perfumes, textiles and gem stones.
Merchants charged fees to transport goods from Asia to Europe
Europeans wanted a way to by-pass the middle men and began to look for alternative trade routes.
How did the rise of Islam and the Crusades influence European exploration in the late 15th Century?
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the religion of Islam spread rapidly throughout Africa and the Middle East
Powerful Muslim Empires expanded their influence into Asia and Europe.
Religious rivalries were fueled as different groups competed for followers, land and wealth.
In 1095 the European Christians launched the first of 9 expeditions to the Middle East.
The purpose of these missions, called the Crusades, was to regain control of Christian Holy Sites from the Muslims.
Europeans became more aware of and interested in Asia
What were some of the reasons behind the increased interest in European exploration in the late 15th Century?
Rise of Islam and the Crusades - western Europeans wanted to make sure they had access to the Holy Land
Desire for Natural Resources - gold, spices, silk, cotton, porcelain
Religious Competition - Religious rivalries were fueled as different groups competed for followers, land and wealth
Viking Explorers - sailed to Iceland and Greenland in the 800s and 900s
Trade Competition - Arab traders charged high prices and Europeans wanted to find a way to bypass them
Marco Polo - his description of his travels was widely read in Europe and made people more interested
Growth of Trade - Crusades brought western Europeans into contact with the Middle East and Arab merchants sold spices, sugar, silk and other goods from China and India to Europeans
The Renaissance - growth of ideas - changed way Europeans thought about the world and themselves
Emergence of the Nation State - monarchs wanted to increase the power and wealth of their countries
Advances in Technology - printing press - printed Marco Polo's travels, better maps, development of astrolabe and acquired the magnetic compass
African/Asian Explorers - Portugal sent ships down the west coast of Africa for the first time - traded for gold and slaves
African & Muslim Kingdoms - Ghana - located between the salt mines of the Sahara and the gold mines of South Africa; traded with Muslims - Mali took over Ghana's place
New Trade Routes - better maps showed the direction of currents and lines of latitude