Pharmacology Chapter 2

Which is the best description of a toxic reaction to a drug?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 15
Terms in this set (15)
All drugs are processed in the body through pharmacokinetics. What is the correct order that drugs pass through the body?absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretionWhich route of administration has the fastest rate of distribution?intravenousWhen the nurse administers a 50-mg dose of a drug with a half-life of 6 hours, how many milligrams will remain in the body at 243.13 mg Rationale: The half-life of a drug is the time required for 50% of the drug to be eliminated from the body. In this example at 24 hours, 6.25% or 3.13 mg of the drug would remain in the body.A patient is being started on a new drug that has been used safely by many people for years. The patient has no known allergies, and the nurse administers the drug correctly. Suddenly the patient experiences cardiac arrest. What is this type of reaction called?Idiosyncratic Rationale: Because the drug was a known safe drug and the patient had no known reason not to receive it, the response to the drug in this case was totally unexpected, or idiosyncratic. An allergic response is typically preceded by such reactions as rash, hives, tingling, or swelling.A patient reports postoperative pain, and the nurse administers morphine (a narcotic analgesic) intravenously to ease the pain. Fifteen minutes later, the nurse notes that the patient is very drowsy, respirations are slow and shallow, and oxygen saturation is low. The nurse administers another drug that decreases the action of the morphine. What is this effect called?antagonistic Rationale: The morphine had a greater-than-desired effect on the patient. Because the drug was given intravenously, it is impossible to remove the drug from the patient's bloodstream. Therefore, the nurse does the next best thing and administers another drug that interferes with the action of the first, otherwise known as an antagonistic effect. The result is a decrease in the action of the original drug. The second drug is sometimes referred to as the antidote to the first.