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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Section 2: Iron VOCABULARY and REVIEW QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (26)
Battle of Hampton Roads
the first battle between two non-wooden ships; both ships were clad, or covered, with iron, to make them more durable against cannon fire and other attacks (2)
a period of time classified by a transition from agricultural societies to industrial societies whose economies and social structures became centered around manufacturing and trading goods; the Industrial Revolution began in England and spread throughout Europe and eventually to the United States; it is generally considered to have occurred between 1760-1820 (3)
the naturally occurring type of rock from which iron can be extracted (3)
a gray, hard type of fuel that is made by heating coal or oil without air; once made, coke is then used to smelt iron (3)
the process of extracting iron from iron ore by using heat (3)
an English inventor who designed a process for mass producing quality steel (9)
an industrial leader during the late 1800s and early 1900s, who built and owned the "steel empire" in the United States; he was known as a shrewd, corrupt, and sometimes harsh businessman, but he donated his entire fortune through philanthropic efforts such as building libraries and museums for good of the general public (12)
enterprising, willing to take risks to get an unproven or new business started (13)
the appointment of friends or family to important positions in a business or politics whether or not they are qualified (13)
economies of scale
the cost and profit advantages obtained by being able to mass produce something (14)
"The Gospel of Wealth"
an essay by Andrew Carnegie that laid out his grand vision for the wealthy to live modest lifestyles and donate money towards causes that would allow lower, less educated classes to access opportunities that would help them improve themselves (16)
- a contradiction (16)
a very tall building (19)
a historic skyscraper in New York City that was completed in 1902; the Flatiron Building was a feat of engineering that symbolized the beginning of New York's transformation into a city full of skyscrapers (19)
the British government system in India between 1858-1947; during this time, India was part of the British Empire (24)
a successful cotton and textile industry entrepreneur in India who believed that the economy in India could be improved by introducing technical education and research, hydroelectricity, attracting wealthy tourists, and production of steel (24)
How did the Battle of Hampton Roads showcase the potential impact of iron in society?
The Battle of Hampton Roads showcased the strength that iron would have as armament in offensive and defensive warfare; this realization would shape how future wars were conducted. (2-3)
What role did iron play in causing the Industrial Revolution?
The plants and factories that manufactured iron and produced goods made with iron were the backbone of the Industrial Revolution; these factories drew workers in from farms as the demand for iron and steel products increased, which led to further urbanization and industrialization. Nations and governments sought to control access to iron ore and coke because these would allow the nation(s) in control to continue or achieve economic growth. (3-7, 9-12)
How did Andrew Carnegie use economies of scale to his advantage in production of steel?
Andrew Carnegie would increase, rather than decrease, the output of his steel mills even if the demand for steel decreased. Typically, the output of a product is decreased when demand decreases. By increasing the output during a decrease in demand, Carnegie's prices remained low which kept his competition from drawing customers away from him, since he could provide a high quality product at the lowest possible price. (14-15)
What was the role of iron in migration within and immigration to the United States?
As industrialization continued in the 1800s, more people moved from rural, agricultural areas to city centers where there were more jobs and the possibility of increasing one's social status. People also moved from other countries where there were less opportunities to work and potentially increase one's economic and social station. Lastly, the railroads, which were built out of steel made partially with iron, transported many of these people in to the city centers where they would work and live. (15, 19, 22)
Why does the author claim that the character of Andrew Carnegie was "a great paradox?"
The author claims that Andrew Carnegie was a "great paradox" because he was a ruthless businessman who cut workers' wages frequently while increasing their hours, yet he did this in order to make more money so that he had more money to give back to society at large through his philanthropic efforts. (16)
How did iron promote increasing urbanization and industrialization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
Iron promoted increasing urbanization and industrialization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by not only providing people with jobs and new means of transportation, but also through the building of skyscrapers, which brought a new way of creating more space for people in the already cramped cities. (18-22)
What was Jamsetji Tata's vision for developing India, and what role did iron play in that vision?
Jamsetji Tata believed that India's economy had potential to become modern and sizable; he believed that in order for India to modernize, they needed to industrialize India. He believed that steel production would bring an industry to India which would ensure jobs and demand for trade, and it would also lead to modernization because railroads and cities could be built using the steel produced in India. (24-25)
Compare the approaches of Andrew Carnegie and Jamsetji Tata to business and philanthropy; in what ways were they similar?
Andrew Carnegie and Jamsetji Tata both gave money to support the needs of their nation, especially the needs of those in lower social and economic classes. They both set up philanthropic organizations that focused on education, health, and institutions that would be important to the nation at large, such as libraries and museums. They also both used iron to build industries that funded these philanthropic efforts. (27)
Contrast the approaches of Andrew Carnegie and Jamsetji Tata to business and philanthropy; in what ways were they different?
Andrew Carnegie sought to build up as much wealth as possible at all costs, even if it hurt his workers, because he believed that ultimately that meant he would have more to give back to society at large. Jamsetji Tata believed that his personal wealth was a reflection of the wealth of the nation and so it was not truly his in the first place. The wellbeing of his workers was a priority for him, so he created pension funds, accident compensation, and pioneered equal rights in the workplace. (26-27)
Why does the author claim that neither Carnegie's nor Tata's approach to business and philanthropy would be successful today?
Carnegie's business, which existed in the early days of the Industrial Revolution in America, was full of corruption, cronyism, and general disregard for any laws, whether government rules or natural laws such as respect for human dignity. These traits of his business represented the American industrial revolution as a whole. This approach would be ill-received today when regulations are a key component of workplace safety and business ethics in the United States. Tata's approach is not sustainable in today's cutthroat business environment; focusing entirely on workers' rights and satisfaction would likely result in lower profit margins, which would decrease a business's chance at finding and keeping investors or continuing in business at all. (27-28)
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