SCOP9 Novice Round 6 Misses

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The recently discovered F-type of this molecule lets stromatolites function in the infrared range, and the P680 one performs photolysis of water. Located in thylakoid membranes, this molecule contains a porphyrin ring with a central magnesium ion. The absorption spectrum of this molecule peaks at red and blue wavelengths, and the autumn change in leaf color is due to the breakdown of it. For ten points, name this molecule that absorbs sunlight energy needed for photosynthesis and gives plants a green color.
This Enlightenment thinker wrote about proper methods of education in a work that included the "Profession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar," a defense of religious thought that angered both Protestants and Catholics. Name this French philosopher and author of Emile [ay-MEEL] who wrote that "man is born free, but everywhere is in chains" to open his most famous work.
This president's policies were frequently blocked by the "Four Horsemen," a conservative block of the Supreme Court, and he failed in a controversial attempt to "pack" more justices on the Court. This man used bank holidays and new agencies like the Tennessee Valley Authority and WPA to fight the Great Depression. For ten points, name this president who expanded the federal government through his New Deal policies while suffering from polio.
This god was honored with hymns called dithyrambs at the Lenaia festival, and he was obeyed by female followers, like Agave, who were called maenads. This god rescued Ariadne after she was deserted by Theseus. The death of this god's mother, Semele, prompted Zeus to sew this god into his thigh, making him "twice-born." For ten points, name this Greek god of wine.
ConvectionThis process generates granules in the photosphere of stars. The Nusselt number gives the transfer ratio of this process to conduction, and tectonic plates move because of this *type of current in the mantle*. Atmospheric Hadley cells swap dry air for moist in the tropics through this process, and the "forced" type uses a blanket of hot air to cook food evenly in a namesake oven. For ten points, name this *process that transfers heat by the motion of a fluid.*Christmas CarolThis novella's protagonist is visited by a childlike figure who carries an extinguisher to control the flames on its head, and by a man in a green robe who is crowned with a holly wreath. This novel's protagonist is warned by the *chained-up ghost of Jacob Marley*, and is told by the *ghost of a holiday "Yet to Come"* of the possible fate of Bob Cratchit's son. For ten points, name this novella by *Charles Dickens*, in which *Ebeneezer Scrooge* gives food to *Tiny Tim*'s family after he learns to appreciate the *title winter holiday*.RamessesThe Greeks referred to this man as Ozymandias. This *"great" Egyptian pharaoh* defeated the Nile "Sea People" and claimed a victory at the 1274 BCE *Battle of Kadesh.*HittitesThe "Sea People" were allies of these people, who fought Ramesses the Great at the Battle of Kadesh. The empire of these people was largely based in modern Turkey.ConvexLike all polygons, rectilinear polygons can be classified by this adjective if *every line segment between two points on their edges stays within the interior of the polygon*. Polygons without this quality are called concave.TaxicabTracing movement in this form of geometry will create a rectilinear polygon, because this type of distance is defined by movements parallel to the Cartesian axes, as you would see while driving a car in a city.CubismPicasso co-founded this *geometric* and fragmented style with Georges Braque. Many of his works were in the "analytic" and "synthetic" forms of this styleWomen of AvignonThis early cubist painting by Picasso depicts five angular, nude woman. The faces of two of the figures in this painting are inspired by African masksBlueBefore his cubist phase, Picasso went through this "period" in his work, which was characterized by *cool tones* and *depressing themes*. The Old Guitarist is a painting from this period.The Catcher in the RyeThe protagonist of this novel is disappointed to have broken his sister's "Little Shirley Beans" record, but takes her to the Central Park Zoo so she can ride the carousel. This novel's protagonist is beaten up by Maurice for hiring the prostitute Sunny, and reminisces about his brother's poetry-scrawled baseball glove. DB, Allie, and *Phoebe* are the siblings of this novel's protagonist, who is kicked out of Pencey Prep at the start of this novel. For ten points, name this novel about *Holden Caulfield*, written by *JD Salinger*.Fort NecessityAfter taking thirty-one casualties in a small skirmish, Washington surrendered this hastily-built fort to the French.HubbleThis astronomer determined that the *Andromeda Nebula was not actually a nebula*. Name this American astronomer, the namesake of a *low-orbit telescope* launched in 1990, and of a law that relates the redshift of objects in space to their distance from an observer.Tuning forkHubble classified galaxies using a *Y-shaped* diagram named for this acoustical device. The *two prongs* of this diagram separate the barred and unbarred spiral galaxies.MosqueThese structures often include a sahn, an enclosed courtyard with a fountain to allow visitors to perform wudu, a type of ritual cleansing. The tallest point on these structures is used by a *muezzin to issue a call for prayer*, and is called a minaret. These structures contain a *raised platform called a minbar*, from which sermons are delivered by imams. For ten points, name these *centers of Islamic worship*.Animal FarmSome characters in this novel change a long-held slogan from "four legs good, two legs bad" to "four legs good, two legs better." Name this novel *about the growing dictatorship of Napoleon*, an *allegory of Soviet Russia* that plays out in a barnyard, written by *George Orwell*.BoxerIn Animal Farm, this horse adopts the personal mantra "I will work harder" as he works tirelessly to build a siloOld MajorThis elderly pig gives a speech that inspires the animals' rebellion, but his death begins the power struggle between Napoleon and Snowball.WindThe katabatic type of this phenomenon is cooled by glaciers, and the Santa Ana and Chinook ones are extremely dry. *Aeolian erosion results from this phenomenon*, which is often absent in the horse latitudes and doldrums. An ane-mometer can be used to classify these on the Beaufort scale. In the US, prevailing westerly ones of these generated the *Dust Bowl*, and ones faster than *72 miles per hour* are called *"hurricane force."* For ten points, name these *large air movements* that blow from regions of high pressure to low.GalileeJesus gathered his disciples from around this sea, where he demonstrated his ability to *walk on water*.GermanyThe protagonist of a novel from what is now this modern country recites Ossian to his love interest prior to killing himself with Albert's gun. In another novel from this modern country, Josef Knecht [NEKT] becomes Magister Ludi in the province of Castilia. The Sorrows of Young Werther and The Glass Bead Game are from this country, as is a work in which *Mephistopheles makes a tragic deal with the title man, Faust*. For ten points, name this country that is *home to Herman Hesse* [HESS] and Johann Wolfgang von *Goethe* [GUR-tuh].DouglassThis man recounted having to give Hugh Auld his wages earned at a Baltimore shipyard in one of his autobiographies. This *founder of the newspaper The North Star* argued in favor of women's suffrage at the Seneca Falls Convention, and asked "What, to a slave, is the Fourth of July?" in an 1852 speech. For ten points, name this *abolitionist* who described his life as a slave in *My Bondage* and *My Freedom* and a best-selling Narrative of his life.Puget SoundThis body of water cuts into a US state, creating the Olympic Peninsula to its west. Name this sound, which is connected to the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Its water reaches the cities of Tacoma and Olympia.RainierThis *highest mountain in Washington*, and in and all of the Cascades, poses a massive volcanic threat to Tacoma and other cities on Puget Sound.CrucifixionA depiction of this scene by Salvador Dalı replaces the central object with a hypercube. Houses and a synagogue burn in the background of Marc Chagall's White version of this scene. In Gauguin's [goh-GAN's] depiction of this scene, this event's central figure stands on a small ledge with *nails through his feet and hands*. For ten points, name this *biblical event*, which in Gauguin's painting shows the *death of The Yellow Christ*.MonopoleOther unsuccessful inventors have tried to patent machines they claim run on this type of magnetic particle, which cannot exist in classical physics according to Gauss's law. This particle would be the magnetic analog of a point electrical charge.PanamaThis country's capital city is home to Ancon [an-CONE] Hill, an undeveloped jungle reserve surrounded by urban growth just northeast of the *Bridge of the Americas*. This country's Gatun Lake was the largest man-made lake in the world when it was created in the early 20th century as part of a construction project that the French failed to complete. For ten points, name this *Central American country* where a *canal connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans*.GaulPrior to becoming dictator of Rome, Julius Caesar fought a group of people from this region, now a part of France. His victory at the Battle of Alesia solidified Roman control of this region.MassGraham's law states that the square root of this quantity for a gas is inversely proportional to its rate of effusion. The dalton is a unit of this quantity, and another unit for this quantity appears in the denominator of the formula for molality. Stoichiometry [stoh-ih-kee-ah-meh-tree] requires finding the molar form of this quantity for compounds, and isotopes of an element differ in this type of number, equal to the *sum of each atom's protons and neutrons*. The amu [A-M-U] is the standard chemistry unit of, for ten points, what quantity that can also be *measured in grams*?World SerpentAt Ragnarok, Thor will kill and be killed by this creature. This creature is so large that its body wraps around the Earth.LadenIn 1993, the British newspaper The Independent published a positive personal relations story about this man's efforts to build a rural highway in Sudan using mujahideen labor. A controversial *polio vaccination program was used by the CIA to gain intelligence on this man*. Operation Neptune Spear targeted this man, who was killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan in 2011 by Navy SEALs. For ten points, name this leader of Al Qaeda and *mastermind of the 9/11 attacks*.ProkofievThis composer's final *opera was based on Tolstoy's War and Peace*. This composer adapted a fairy tale into his opera The Love For Three Oranges and *wrote ballets based on Romeo and Juliet and Cinderella*.Peter and the WolfProkofiev is best known for this narrated work, which uses *different instruments to represent characters* such as the bird, the cat, and a duck that gets swallowed alive by one of the title characters.BassoonThis largest standard woodwind instrument represents the grandfather in Peter and the Wolf. This double-reed instrument is usually held diagonally when played.Garcia MarquezIn a novella by this man, a town declines to intervene in the death of Santiago Nassar, though they are all aware of his impending murder. Name this *Colombian author* of Chronicle of a Death Foretold, *One Hundred Years of Solitude*, and a novel about a love triangle between Florentino, Fermina, and Doctor Urbino.CholeraFlorentino, Fermina, and Doctor Urbino appear in a Garcia Marquez novel titled for Love in the Time of this illness, which Doctor Urbino strives to eradicate. This illness is spread through contaminated drinking water.IndiaA mathematician from what is now this country names a formula for calculating the area of a cyclic quadrilateral, given its side lengths. Centuries before the invention of calculus, the *power series expansions for sine and cosine* were developed by the *Kerala school* in this country. The *decimal number system* first appeared in the 7th century in, for ten points, what country where *Brahmagupta* wrote about mathematical innovations, like *zero*, in *Sanskrit*?HemophiliaBy 1940, one-third of Queen Victoria's male descendants are known to have inherited this disease. Name this genetic illness in which *blood does not properly clot*, leading to *excessive bleeding after even mild injuries*.RicketsA less common sex-linked disorder is hypo-phospha-temia, also known as the dominant type of this *bone disease*. Children with this disease *cannot absorb vitamin D*, resulting in short stature and painful, bowed legs.