Lecture 26 + quiz

ATP is generated on demand from creatine phosphate, anaerobic (in sarcoplasm) or aerobic (mitochondria) metabolism
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What is the relationship between the number of myofibrils in a muscle and the amount of force that muscle can produce?When a muscle is resting, how is most ATP created?What is required for ATP production at this time? In which part of a cell does this aerobic metabolism occur?Why is aerobic ATP production preferred at rest? Why not just anaerobic ATP production?Beyond the fatty acids used at rest, what other substances can be used in aerobic metabolism to produce ATP? Is protein something you want to use for ATP generation all the time?What substance produced by glycolysis gets metabolized further by aerobic metabolism?During light exercise, does the source of ATP change from the resting state?When you suddenly start running, your ATP demand dramatically increases. a. What are the immediate sources of additional ATP at this time? b. How long can you power contractions using this stored ATP or creatine phosphate? c. How does creatine phosphate act as a "storage form" of ATP? d. Is aerobic metabolism occurring at this time as well?If you continue running and require more ATP than can be provided by your storage, creatine phosphate or the mitochondria, how else might you supply ATP rapidly? a. Where does this ATP production occur? b. How many ATP molecules will this metabolism produce (net gain)? What substances are broken down to form ATP this way? c. Can this anaerobic glycolysis occur if the oxygen in the cell is limited? d. The end products of glycolysis are pyruvic acid and ATP. If oxygen is present, what happens to the pyruvic acid? If oxygen is limited, what happens to some of the pyruvic acid that does not go to the mitochondria? Where does this lactic acid go once it is formed?When you exercise at peak exertion, can your circulatory system deliver oxygen to your muscle cells fast enough to produce ATP strictly by aerobic metabolism? What is a by-product of glycolysis that builds up when you can't produce enough ATP by just aerobic metabolism? How does this by-product affect muscle cells? Why can't you exercise at peak exertion for a long period of time? Why is your body able to exercise lightly for a very long time?What causes muscle fatigue?- when muscles work hard for a long time they may have too little oxygen and get tired and so don't contract efficiently - one cause of muscle fatigue is the build up of lactic acidHow does the body handle the lactic acid accumulated during anaerobic metabolism?In what organ of the body does this lactic acid processing occur?hat causes increased respiration rate during the recovery phase (oxygen debt)?The toxin cyanide blocks one of the last steps on ATP production in the mitochondria. What effect would this have on a person?NEED TO KNOWATP production is not 100% efficient. The process of making ATP harnesses only 40% of the energy in the bonds of the substrate with the other 60% leaving the cell as heat. This is why increased exercise, which requires more ATP to be made and used, raises your body temperature. It is important that you realize the connection between ATP production and heat production in the body.How long can even the most well trained individual sustain peak force production?approx 1 minuteDuring increasing intense exercise, rising blood lactate is an indicator that:glycolysis is occurring at higher rates than aerobic respiration of pyruvic acid.Muscle fibers:need to create ATP on demand once the minimal reserves are used up.Skeletal muscles in your resting body (like sleeping in your bed at night) do all of the following EXCEPT:large scale conversion of glycogen to glucose to pyruvic acid.Whole muscle fused (complete) tetanic contractions utilize mostly ________________ respiration for ATP production and therefore _________ be sustained for long periods of time.anaerobic; cannot