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AP Bio Semester 1 Comprehensive Test Objectives

Terms in this set (68)

1. Carbohydrates- include sugars and the polymers of sugars (-ose); M: Monosaccharides are single, individual sugar monomers that have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O, classified by the location of the carbonyl group (Aldose and Ketose) and the numbers of carbon in the carbon skeleton; F: Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel and energy source for cells and their carbon skeletons serve as raw material for building other organic molecules, polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen are used for energy when other forms of quick energy have been depleted, polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin are used to physically build parts of cells; E: Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide, Sucrose is made from glucose and fructose; SC: three main types- Monosaccharides (single, simple sugars; soluble in water; taste sweet), Disaccharides (double sugars joined by a dehydration reaction, also called Glycosidic linkage; not soluble in water), and Polysaccharides (carbohydrate macromolecules; polymers composed of many sugar building blocks; have storage and structural roles; the architecture and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of its glycosidic linkages)
2. Lipids- M: fats are constructed from glycerol and fatty acid;F: used for energy storage and as structural components of cells, specifically creating the cell membrane-; E: most important lipids are fats (used for energy), phospholipids, and steroids; SC: the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers, mix poorly if at all with water because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, phospholipids have a lipid bilayer
3. Proteins- Polypeptides are unbranched polymers built form these amino acids, a protein consists of one or more polypeptides; M: constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids; E: Enzymatic (selective acceleration of chemical reactions), Storage (storage of amino acids), Defensive (Protection against disease), Transport (Transport of substances), Hormonal (Coordination of an organism's activities), Receptor (response of cell to chemical stimuli), Contractile and motor (movement), Structural (support); F: some speed up chemical reactions, others functions include defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, or structural support; SC: account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells, linked by covalent bonds called peptide bonds, the shape of the protein determines its function, denaturization can occur, chaperonins assist in the folding of proteins
4. Nucleic Acid- M: nucleotides (can be broken down into 3 smaller components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups); F: store, transmit, and help express hereditary information (DNA makes RNA and RNA makes proteins); E: DNA and RNA; SC: 4 bases in both DNA and RNA, DNA is connected on antiparallel double helixes, RNA is single-stranded
Interphase- chromosomes duplicate, the resulting sister chromatids are closely associated along their lengths
Meiosis I-
Prophase I- each chromosome pairs with its homolog, called synapsis, and the process of crossing over occurs
Metaphase I- pairs of homologs line up at the metaphase plate, with one chromosome facing each pole. Microtubules from one pole are attached to the kinetochore of one chromosome of each tetrad, which is a group of four chromatids from a pair of chromosomes. Microtubules from the other pole are attached to the kinetochore of the other chromosome
Anaphase I- pairs of homologous chromosomes separate. One chromosome of each pair moves toward opposite poles, guided by the spindle apparatus. Sister chromatids remain attached at the centromere and move as one unit toward the pole
Telophase I and cytokinesis- each half of the cell has a haploid set of chromosomes; each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids. Cytokinesis usually occurs simultaneously, forming two haploid daughter cells. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms; in plant cells, a cell plate forms.
Meiosis II-
Prophase II- a spindle apparatus forms. Chromosomes move toward the metaphase plate
Metaphase II- the sister chromatids are arranged at the metaphase plate. Because of crossing over in meiosis I, the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are no longer genetically identical. The kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to microtubules extending from opposite poles
Anaphase II- The sister chromatids separate. The sister chromatids of each chromosome now move as two newly individual chromosomes toward opposite poles
Telophase II and cytokinesis- the chromosomes arrive at opposite poles. Nuclei form, and the chromosomes begin decondensing. Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasm. At the end of meiosis there are four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes