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someone who sets up a new business to make a profit

How did entrepreneur raise capital?

They adopted new ways of organizing businesses


businesses owned by many investors

What things helped industrial growth?

Government policy, technology, railroads

How did government policy favor industrial growth?

gave lang grants, kept high tariffs on imports

How was technology a factor of industrial growth?

technology helps making products efficient

How did railroads fuel industrial growth?

Trains helped get goods and people from one place to another.

Why did banks lend huge amounts of capital to corporations?

help American industry grow faster


a group of corporations run by a single board of directors

free enterprise

the system in which privately owned businesses compete freely

What did labor unions fight for?

safer working conditions, higher pay, shorter hours

collective bargaining

unions negotiate with management for workers as a group


rapid growth of city populations

What was the cause of rapid urbanization?

Cities attratcted industry. Industry attracted people.

Where were many fast-growing cities located? Why?

Near waterways because it provided easy transport for goods

How did technology change city life?

Now people did not have to live in the city to work there. Technology made transportation easier


buildings divided into many tiny apartments

settlement house

a center offering help to urban poor

What leisure activities did city dwellers enjoy?

shopping, museum, art galleries, theater, circuses, sports

What were reasons for people to migrate?

property, religious freedom, or jobs


large compartments that usually held cattle


process of becoming part of another culture


a person who opposes all forms of government

Why did navists oppose immigration?

immigrants were taking all of the navists jobs for less pay.

compulsory education

the requirement that children attend school up to a certain age


writers who try to show life as it is

What were reasons for the great number of newspapers being sold?

eduaction and urbanizatin

yellow journalism

describes sensational reporting style

Author : Jacob Riis

How the other half lives

Author : Lincoln Steffans

The Shame of the Cities

Author : Ida Tarbell

The History of the Standard Oil Company

Author : Upton Sinclair

The Jungle

Author : Ida B. Wells

The Red Story

What was the key source of corruption?

spoils system - practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs.

civil service

a system that includes most government jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, and the military

What was the aim of Civil service Commision?

to fill jobs based on merit

What were the progressive political reforms?

primary, initiative, referendum, recall


election in which voters choose their party


process where people vote to remove and electeed official


process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature


a way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law

graduated income tax

a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income


crusading journalits


a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts


protection of natural resources

national park

natural area protected and managed by the federal government

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