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AP English Literary Terms

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Ambiguity
The expression of an idea in such a way that more then one meaning is suggested.
Anadiplosis
The repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the next clause.
Ad hominem fallacy
A fallacy of logic in which a person's character is attacked instead of that person's argument.
Abstract Diction
Refers to words that describe concepts rather than concrete images. Ex's. Love, hate, feelings, emotion,
Interrogative Sentences
A type of sentence structure used chiefly for asking questions.
Hyperbole
Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor emphasis.
Foreshadowing
The use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs later in the work.
Ad populum fallacy
Popular appeal, or appeal to the majority.
Allegory
An extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the author intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of a story; the underlying meaning may be moral, religious, political, social, or static.
Anecdote
A short, entertaining account of some happening, frequently personal or biographical used to bring humor or to illustrate a particular characteristic or trait.
Apostrophe
A strategy in which an absent person, inanimate object.
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants; ex. Early in the day, the neighs began to fade.
Cause and Effect
Examination of the causes and/or effects of a situation or phenomenon. This can be an author's main organizational strategy.
Figurative Language
How authors use literal meanings to suggest non-literal meanings including metaphors, similes, symbolism, etc.
Convoluted Sentences
Long, complicated sentences that are often hard to follow because they are wordy and too many ideas are rolled togetehr in one sentence.
Ellipsis
Any omitted part of speech that is easily understood in context.
Epanalepsis
The repetiton of the first word of one clause at the end of the clause.
Epigram
A brief, clever, and usually memorable statement.
Epistrophe
The repetiton of the same word or group of words at the end of phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Denotation
The literal or obvious meaning of a word.
Irony
Verbal- Method of expression, intended meaning opposite of usual meaning.
Situational- When something happens as a result of or in a reaction to something else in a way that is contrary to what would be expected.
Imperative Sentences
A type of sentence structure used chiefly for issuing a directive or command.
Connotation
Implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association in the reader's mind.
Alliteration
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another.
Begging the Q
Fallacy of logical argument that assumes the reader will automatically accept an assertion without proper support,
Chiasmus
A syntactical Structure by which of the order of the terms in the first two parallel clauses is reversed in the second.
Circular logic/thinking/reasoning
A fallacy which involves repeating assertions endlessly without real support.
Concrete Diction
Words that describe specific, observable things, people,or places rather the ideas or qualities.
Colloquial Diction
Words or phrases used in everyday conversation and informal writing which is usually inappropriate in formal writing.
Antithesis
Opposition or contrast emphasized by parallel structure.
Anastrophe
Departure from normal word order for the sara of emphasis. Normal syntaxis violated.
Anaphora
The repetition of introductory words or phrases for effect. This creates a rythme and established pattern.
Bandwagon
Either saying that supporting a specific cause/stance would result in the rejection of peers or using the popular support of a cause/stance topersuade others to support it as well.
Asyndeton
Commas used to seperate a series of words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is ommited; In addition the use of commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence, parallelism.
Aphorism
A brief saying embodying a moral; a concise statement of a principle or percept given in pointed words.
Appeal to authority/Expert Testimony
Citation of info from people recognized for their special knowledge of a subject for the purpose of strengthening an author's argument.
Antecedent
The word for which a pronoun stands.
Idioms
An expression inthe usageof a language that has a meaning that cannot be derived from the conjoined, literal meanings of it's elements.
Juxtaposition
A type of zeugma- putting together two contrasting elements that are so unlike that the effect is surprising, witty...
Allusion
A brief or indirect reference to a person, place, or, event, or passage in a work of literature, or the bible assumed to be sufficiently wellknown to be recognized by the reader.
Analogy
A comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained intermsif the more simple.
Caricature
Descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates a specific feature of a person's appearance or a facet of personality.
Euphemism
The sueof a word or phrase that is less diect, but that is also less distasteful or less offensive then another.
Ethos
Appelaing to ethics; an ethical appeal makes use of what an audience values and believes tobe good or true.
False Casualty
A fallacyof concluding that an event is caused by another event simply bacuase it follows it.
False Dilemma
A fallacy of logical argument whichis commited when too few of the available alternatives are considered, and all but one are assessed and deemed impossible or unacceptable.
Freight Train Sentences
A sentence consisting of 3 or more very short independent clauses joined by conjunctions.