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biochem chapter 3-2
introduction to nucleic acid structure pg. 43
Terms in this set (34)
the nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides whose phosphates bridge the ___ and ___ positions of neighboring ribose units.
3' and 5'
the phosphates of these polynucleotides are _____, so at physiological pH, nucleic acids are _____.
the linkage between individual nucleotides is known as what?
each nucleotide that has been incorporated into the polynucleotide is known as a ___ _____
the terminal residue whose C5' is not linked to another nucleotide
the terminal residue whose C3' is not linked to another nucleotide
the sequence of nucleotide residues in a nucleic acid is written from left to right from the ____ end to the ___ end.
5' ; 3'
what are the sequences of formation of a polymer?
monomers, dimer, trimer, tetramer, and oligomer
the properties of a polymer may be very _____ from the properties of the individual units or monomers before polymerization.
a polymer of nonidentical residues has a property that its component monomers lack - namely, it contains information in the form of its _____ of ____.
____ _____ describes the base composition of DNA.
Chargaff's rules describes what?
the base composition of DNA
Chargaff's rules states what?
A = T and G= C in DNA
DNA forms what shape?
what is said to mark the birth of modern molecular biology?
the determination of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953
the Watson-Crick structure of DNA was based in part on what two pieces of evidence in addition to Chargaff's rules?
the correct tautomeric forms of the bases and indications that DNA is a helical molecules
easily converted isomers that differ only in hydrogen positions
X-ray, nuclear magnetic resonance, and spectroscopic investigations have firmly established that the nucleic acid bases of DNA are overwhelmingly in the ___ ____ forms.
The appearance of the X-ray diffraction photography of a DNA fiber by Rosalind Franklin enabled Crick to deduce what two things about DNA?
1. that DNA is a helical molecule 2. that its planar aromatic bases form a stack that is parallel to the fiber axis
what are the 4 major features of the Watson-Crick model of DNA?
1. two polynucleotide chains wind around a common axis to form a double helix 2. the two strands of DNA are antiparallel, but each forms a right-handed helix 3. the bases occupy the core of the helix and sugar-phosphate chains run along the periphery 4. complementary base pairing
what is the purpose of the bases of DNA occupying the core of the helix and the sugar-phosphate chains running along the periphery?
minimizes the repulsions between charged phosphate groups
the surface of the double helix of DNA contains two grooves of unequal width called what?
the major and minor grooves
what is complementary base pairing?
only A with T and only C with G
Complementary base pairing suggests each DNA strand can act as a ____ for the synthesis of its complementary strand and hence that _______ information is encoded in the sequence of bases on either strand.
an organisms unique DNA content
an organism's genome may be allocated among several ____________, each of which contains a separate DNA molecule.
contain two equivalent sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
humans are diploid organisms with how many chromosomes? How many haploid?
because of their great length, DNA molecules are described in terms of the number of _____ _____ (______) or thousands of ____ ____ (____ ____ or ____)
base pairs; bp; kilobase pairs; kp
naturally occurring DNAs vary in length from about _______ kb in small DNA-containing viruses to well over ________ kb in the largest mammalian chromosomes.
____ is a single stranded nucleic acid
an RNA strand - which is identical to a DNA strand except for the presence of ______ groups and the substitution of ____ for ______ - can base-pair with a complementary strand of ___ or ____.
2'—OH ; uracil for thymine; RNA or DNA
base pairing between complementary sequences within an RNA strand allows the polynucleotide to fold back on itself forming a _________ ___ structure.
RNA can do more than just store and transmit genetic information, like what?
RNA molecules can specifically bind small organic molecules and can catalyze reactions involving those molecules
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