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Anatomy I Exam III
Terms in this set (62)
What are the four regions of the brain?
cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum
What two parts of the brain have an outer gray matter layer?
Cerebrum and cerebellum
What protects the brian?
-Watery cushion (cerebrospinal fluid)
-Blood brain barrier)
What are the three layers of the meninges from superficial to deep?
What does the blood brain barrier do?
-Maintain stable environment for the brain
-Separates neurons from some blood-borne substances
What are the five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula
What are the three regions of each cerebral hemisphere?
-The superficial cortex of gray matter
-Internal white matter
-Areas of gray matter deep within the surface of whiter matter, the basal nuclei
What is the cerebral cortex responsible for?
consciousness, intelligence, memory and language
What are the three functional areas of the cerebral cortex?
Motor areas, sensory areas, association areas
What does the primary (somatic) motor cortex do?
Allows for conscious control of skilled voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
What can happen with damage to the primary motor cortex?
-Small legions - seizures or twitching
-Destructive lesions can produce complete paralysis of muscle groups on opposite sides of the body
What does the premotor cortex do?
Controls learned motor skills
What can happen to damage to the premotor cortex?
-Loss of learned motor skills
-Muscles movements and strength are unaffected
What is broca's area?
Motor speech area that controls muscles involved in speech production
What happens when there is damage to broca's area?
-Broca's aphasia which makes them unable to create grammatically-complex sentences
What does the frontal eye field do?
controls voluntary eye movements
What does the primary somatosenory cortex do?
Allows for spatial discrimination and the ability to detect the location of a stimulation
What does the somatosensory association cortex do?
Integrates sensory information and produces an understanding of the stimulus being felt
What does the primary visual cortex do
receives visual information from retinas
What does the visual association area do?
uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli
What is the largest sensory area?
primary visual cortex
What happens when there is damage to the primary visual cortex?
What happens where there is damage to the visual association cortex?
Will be able to see but not bale to comprehend what they are seeing
What is the function of the primary auditory cortex?
Interprets information from the inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location
What is the function of the auditory association area?
Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sound stimulus
What is the function of the vestibular cortext?
Conscious awareness of balance
What is the function of the olfactory cortext?
Perception of odors
What is the function of the gustatory cortext?
Perception of taste stimuli
What is the visceral sensory areas involved in?
Conscious visceral sensation
What does the limbic association area deal with?
Emotion surrounding situations including cingulate gyrus, parahippocranial gyrus, and hippocampus
What happen when there is damage to wernicke's area
Speech is preserved but language content is incorrect
What does the posterior association area play a role in?
Recognizing patterns and faces and localizing us in space
What is cerebral white matter responsible for?
communication between cerebral areas and the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers
Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced?
the 4 ventricles
What happens if there is any obstruction at any point in the CSF pathway?
-Hydrocephalus is kids
-Pressure in adults
What separates the two cerebral hemispheres?
2 halves, separated by falx cerebri
What are fissures?
deep grooves that separate major regions of the brain
What is the cerebral cortex?
Thin layer of gray matter which makes up most of the outermost layer of the cerebrum
-CONTAINS 75% OF THE NEURON CELL BODIES
What does the basal nuclei produce and help control?
-Helps control voluntary movement
What is degenerated in parkinsons disease?
What is the thalamus?
gateway for sensory impulses ascending to cerebral cortex
-receives all sensory impulses besides smell
What is the hypothalamus?
Maintains homeostasis regulating visceral activities
What does the pons do?
-Relay impulses between the motor cortex and cerebellum
-Contains the respiratory center
What happens when there is cerebellar damage?
-Motor coordination problems
-Loss of muscle ton, clumsy unsure movements
What are the portions of the spinal cord?
What are the functions of the spinal cord?
-provide two way communication to and from the brain
-contains spinal reflex centers
What is the epidural space?
Cushion of fat and network of veins in space between vertebrae and spinal dura mater
What type of information do dorsal horns transport?
What type of information do ventral horns transport?
What is the major ascending (sensory) spinal cord tract?
What is the major descending (motor) spinal cord tract?
What are sensory receptors?
Receptors the collect information from the environment, and relay it to the CNS
What are general senses?
Receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body
skin, various organs and joints
-touch, pressure, pain, temperature
What are special senses?
Specialized receptors confined to structures in the head
-eyes, ears, nose, and mouth
What does the outer ear play a role in?
What does the middle ear play a role in?
What does the inner ear play a role in?
hearing and equilibrium
What is the transmission of sound to the internal ear?
-Sound waves vibrate tympanic membrane
-Ossicles vibrate and amplify pressure at oval window
-Cochlear fluid set into wave motion
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