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IGCSE Chemistry: Physical chemistry
http://www.diegcse.com/chemistry-section-4 See also: http://quizlet.com/46155221/igcse-chemistry-solubility-rules-flash-cards/
Terms in this set (40)
A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions.
A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions.
A base that is soluble in water.
A solution that has a pH of less than 7.
A solution that has a pH of more than 7.
An indicator that turns red from pH 0-5, purple from 5-8, and blue from 8-14.
An indicator that turns red from pH 0-3, orange from 3-5, and yellow from 6-14.
An indicator that turns colorless from pH 0-10 and red from 10-14.
An indicator that changes color depending on the pH: red at pH 0, green at pH 7, and purple at pH 14. These color changes are gradual as the pH changes, so it goes through all the colors in the rainbow.
A compound formed when hydrogen ions in an acid are replaced by either a metal ion or by an ammonium ion.
HCl → H⁺ + Cl⁻
Ionization reaction of hydrochloric acid in water.
HNO₃ → H⁺ + NO₃⁻
Ionization reaction of nitric acid in water.
H₂SO₄ → 2H⁺ + SO₄²⁻
Ionization reaction of sulfuric acid in water.
A reaction that produces a precipitate.
An insoluble solid that is made by a chemical reaction that takes place in an aqueous solution.
A method of finding out exactly the volume of one solution that is required to react with a given volume of another solution.
Rate of reaction
A measure of how fast a reaction occurs. Measured by the formula change in concentration of reactant divided by time.
The energy required for colliding particles to react.
Collisions between particles that have the required activation energy.
Increasing this will increase the number of particles of reactant in a given volume and hence the reacting particles will collide more often.
Increasing this will increase the average kinetic energy of the reactant particles and therefore more of the collisions that take place will have the necessary activation energy to react.
Increasing this will mean that there will be more particles of the solid exposed to the other reactant.
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by providing an alternative pathway for the reaction which has a lower activation energy than the original pathway. The substance remains chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction.
A method of preparing soluble salts from acids.
Products when reacting an acid with a metal hydroxide.
Salt, water, carbon dioxide
Products when reacting an acid with a metal carbonate.
Products when reacting an acid with a metal oxide.
Products when reacting an acid with a metal.
A reaction in which heat is released.
A reaction which absorbs heat from the surroundings.
Molar enthalpy change
The amount of energy released or absorbed by a reaction can be measured experimentally using this equation.
The energy required to break a bond. Usually measured in kilojoules per mole of bonds (kJ/mol).
No substances are added to the reaction mixture and no substances escape from it.
The amount of reactants and products stays the same. There appears to be no change. However, the amount of reactants and products are not necessarily equal to each other.
Forward reaction is favored
When there is more product than reactant. This is usually what we want.
Reverse reaction is favored.
When there is more reactant than product. This is usually not what we want.
What happens to the product yield if the forward reaction is exothermic and the temperature is increased?
What happens to the product yield if the forward reaction is exothermic and the temperature is decreased?
What happens if the forward reaction is endothermic and the temperature is increased?
What happens if the forward reaction is endothermic and the temperature is decreased?