A rock that contains enough metal to make it worth mining.
Heating with a reducing agent
Method used to extract zinc, copper and iron from their compounds.
Electrolysis of molten chloride or oxide
Method used to extract potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium and aluminum from their compounds.
In the extraction of aluminum, the positive electrode made from graphite.
In the extraction of aluminum, the negative electrode made from graphite which lines the electrolytic cell.
In the extraction of aluminum, the electrolyte is a solution of aluminum oxide dissolved in this substance.
The main ore of aluminum.
Chemical formula for aluminum oxide.
Al³⁺ + 3e⁻ → Al
Reaction at the negative electrode during the extraction of aluminum from the electrolyte.
2O²⁻ → O₂ + 4e⁻
Reaction at the positive electrode during the extraction of aluminum from the electrolyte.
C + O₂ → CO₂
The problem with the extraction of aluminum is that the oxygen produced reacts with the positive electrode. This means that the electrode has to be replaced at regular intervals.
Iron ore, coke, limestone
The raw materials put into the top of the blast furnace during the extraction of iron.
C + O₂ → CO₂
Oxygen in the air reacts with the coke in the blast furnace to produce carbon dioxide.
CO₂ + C → 2CO
Carbon dioxide reacts with coke in the blast furnace to form carbon monoxide.
Fe₂O₃ + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO₂
Carbon monoxide reduces the iron(III) ore in the iron ore. The iron collects at the bottom of the furnace, where it is tapped off.
CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂
Calcium carbonate in the limestone in the blast furnace decomposes to form calcium oxide.
CaO + SiO₂ → CaSiO₃
Calcium oxide reacts with silicon dioxide (an impurity in the iron ore) to form calcium silicate, or slag, which is tapped off separately.
This metal is used for airplane bodies because of its high strength-to-weight ratio.
This metal is used for overheard power cables because it is a good conductor of electricity.
This metal is used for saucepans because it is a good conductor of heat
This metal is used for food cans because it is not toxic.
This metal is used for window frames because it can resist corrosion.
This metal is used for car bodies, iron nails, ships, girders and bridges because it is strong and can resist corrosion.
A thick, sticky, black liquid that is found under the ground and under the sea in certain parts of the world. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly alkanes.
The first step in the refining of crude oil; carried out in a fractionating column that is hot at the bottom and becomes cooler towards the top.
In a fractionating column, a mixture of hydrocarbons with very similar boiling points.
A fraction used for bottled gas for camping, etc.
A fraction used for petrol for cars.
A fraction used for fuel for airplanes, oil for central heating boilers in the home, paraffin for small heaters and lamps.
A fraction used for diesel for buses, lorries, trains and cars.
A fraction used for fuel for ships and for industrial heating
A fraction used for road surfaces and covering flat roofs of buildings.
A method of converting the long-chain hydrocarbons in the higher boiling point fractions into shorter-chain hydrocarbons. The long-chain hydrocarbon molecules are passed over a catalyst (silica/aluminum oxide) and heated to 600-700°C. The long-chain hydrocarbons break down into short-chain alkane molecules and at least one alkene molecule.
Devices placed in the exhaust system of cars that which attempt to convert as much carbon monoxide as possible into carbon dioxide and also reconvert oxides of nitrogen into nitrogen and oxygen.
A long-chain molecule that has been formed when many small molecules have been joined together.
The process of making an addition polymer.
The structure in the brackets of an addition polymer.
This addition polymer is resistant to chemical attack and can therefore be used to store food, drinks and other chemicals, including acids and alkalis.
This addition polymer is stronger and more hard wearing than poly(ethene). Its major uses include making food packaging, ropes and carpets.
This addition polymer is tougher than poly(ethene), very hard wearing and more stable to heat. Its major uses include plastic sheets, artificial leather, drainpipes and gutters, insulation for electrical wires and casings for electrical plugs.
A reaction in which two molecules react together to form a new, larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule such as water.
A polymer such as nylon that is formed via a condensation reaction.
Raw materials used to manufacture ammonia.
450°C, 200atm, iron catalyst
Essential conditions when manufacturing ammonia to ensure a high yield.
This chemical manufactured by the Haber process is used to make fertilizer and nitric acid.
Raw materials used to manufacture sulfuric acid.
S + O₂ → SO₂
The burning of sulfur to form sulfur dioxide.
2SO₂ + O₂ ⇌ 2SO₃
The burning of sulfur dioxide to form sulfur trioxide.
SO₃ + H₂SO₄ → H₂S₂O₇
The dissolving of sulfur trioxide in concentrated sulfuric acid to form oleum.
H₂S₂O₇ + H₂O → H₂SO₄
The reaction of oleum with water to form sulfuric acid.
2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂
Half-equation for the reaction at the cathode in the manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine.
2Cl⁻ → Cl₂ + 2e⁻
Half-equation for the reaction at the anode in the manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine.
Used in the manufacture of bleach, paper and soap.
Used to sterilize water supplies, manufacture bleach and hydrochloric acid.
Used to make fertilizers, detergents and soaps. It can also be used in the manufacture of paint.