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defining evolution on its smallest scale by focusing on evolutionary change in populations
differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
the gene pool of a population that is not evolving; named for the British mathematician and German physician who independently derived it in 1908
chance events can also cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next, especially in small populations
when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool differs from the source population
a population that passes through a "bottleneck" resulting in a severe drop in population size
the transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals
occurs when conditions favor individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range, thereby shifting a population's frequency curve for the phenotypic character in one direction of the other
occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of a phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotypes
a form of selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
selection within the same sex, individuals of one sex compete directly for mates of the opposite sex
(mate choice) individuals of one sex, usually the females, are choosy in selecting their mates from the other sex
differences in DNA sequences that do not confer a selective advantage or disadvantage
if individuals who are heterozygous at a particular locus have greater fitness than do both kinds of homozygotes
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