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Little Ice Age
Ruined crops and, along with the increasing population, added to poverty and starvation
Symptoms first described in S.W. China- 1331
Rats carried it across trade routes through Caffa
Transmission of Bubonic Plague
Fleas on rats drink blood and can pass it to other rats
Fleas jump & give to humans
Human-to-human transmission by coughing
Primary Stage of Bubonic Plague
Growth the size of a walnut in armpit, groin, or neck
Called the boil, or "bubo"
Could be drained and victim could recover
Medical Responses to the Plague
Popping boil; blood draining; wearing creepy bird masks; sealing houses in which someone has the plague
Reactions to Plague
Apathy, despair, lamelessness and hedonism (sensual self-indulgence), guilt, and the flagellants
people who paraded around the empire and whipped themselves for society's sins (believed that plague was wrath of God)
Effects of the Plague
Less people to work --> low supply
Less jobs being done --> high demand
Low supply + high demand --> increased wages
Increased wages --> increased social mobility of the classes
Phillip the Fair
King of France, along with Edward, taxed the clergy to fund war. Didn't like Boniface's threats so he sent 2,000 thugs to beat him up and throw him in jail, where he was starved for 3 days.
Pope, who didn't like the taxing of the clergy and threatened excommunication to the kings and anyone who gave them money. After being beaten up, he was thrown in jail and starved for 3 days. He was let go but died a week later from injuries.
After a Pope from Avignon died in Rome, the Romans wanted a Roman Pope, so the cardinals of Rome elected Urban VII, but he was really bad
Because Urban was so bad, the cardinals left rome and deemed the election invalid and elected a Frenchman
Council at Constantine
Met because of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund
Disposed of the now 3 Popes (threefold schism) and elected a new one, Martin V.
Also the council burned this guy alive named John Hus for his beliefs.
A massive uprising of the lower class prompted in France in 1358, when the French taxation from the Hundred Year's War fell heavily on the poor
What Happened in the Jacquerie
Peasants killed nobles, burned castles, raped women, etc
Artisans, small merchants, and parish priests joined peasants
Nobles then killed a ton of "Jacques"
A massive uprising of the lower class prompted in England in 1381, after the creation of a head tax on all adult males and when the peasants wanted higher wages and less manorial obligations.
Their lords froze wages and bound the workers to their manors as a response
This boy king met the leaders of the revolt, tricked them with false promises of freedom and squashed the uprising
Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco
Twin cities built by Aztecs. Said to be the largest in Europe besides Istanbul
A young warrior god who took the form of a hummingbird and eventually became the highest diety
Constant Warfare of the Aztecs
Necessary for human sacrifice victims
Necessary to acquire warriors for further expansion
Called "Mexico City" by the Spaniards
Population of 250,000
Upperclass practiced polygamy
Surrounded by stone walls
Advanced irrigation system & aqueducts
Giant temple in center
Method employed by Aztecs to squash rebellions
State makes subjects fear them
Didn't work that well because hate (of your state) is stronger than fear
Civilization in Peru before Incas
Paved the way
Had irrigation system
Empire was series of small cities- not unified
in 500, suffered several El Ninos which collapsed empire
Cult of Royal Mummies
The idea that when a ruler of the Incas died, his corpse would still "own" his old land. People were hired to take care of it. Because of this, every new ruler had to find new land to conquer to claim as his own.
Language of the Incas made official to help in unifying the empire, as part of Imperial Unification
The unification of an empire through semi-forced assimilation, a method employed by the Incas
Forced state religion
the Incan practice of spreading newly conquered people amongst members of the empire to help assimilate them
Problems with the Incan Empire (physically)
Couldn't expand to rainforest because the Incas were used to fighting in a cleared area; not used to Guerilla warfare
Empire was over-expanded: messengers could take up to 12 days to deliver a message through the empire
Brother of Atauhualpa.
Wanted to rid empire of the Cult of Royal Mummies to free up land
Nobles didn't like him because they benefited from the Cult of Royal Mummies
Brother of Huascar
Won the Internecine Civil War, but was soon defeated by the Spanish soldiers due to an exhausted empire and inferior military strategy
The final destination of tortured political prisoners who refuse to break, and invariably contains the prisoner's worst fear
At the bottom of the socio-economic hierarchy, they perform all the physical labor and menial tasks in Oceania, and live in slums
Consists of a revolutionary group led by Emmanual Goldstein and dedicated to the overthrow of the Party, though it might not actually exist
A period of daily release allows party members to vent anger, frustration, and fear otherwise locked inside themselves at their "enemies", such as Eurasian soldiers or Goldstein
Methods Employed by the Two-Minute Hate
Re-direction of pent-up hate towards a different looking people
Reasoning behind Perpetual War
Perpetual war uses up surplus -->
no surplus for the proles to get -->
the proles stay poor -->
the proles stay in the lower class -->
the Inner Party stays at the top
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