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Human sexual behavior study guides
Terms in this set (288)
This chapter considers three different ways to define a behavior as unconventional or abnormal. The __________ approach defines a behavior as normal if most people do it. By this definition, abnormal behaviors are behaviors that are engaged in by relatively few people. The _____________ approach is concerned with the social conditions that give rise to abnormal behavior. The __________ approach evaluates the behaviors with respect to whether they cause and individual to feel distressed or guilty, and/or cause the person problems in functioning efficiently in ordinary social and occupational roles. What is considered unconventional depends on the time and ______ in which the behavior is displayed.
statistical, sociological, psychological, place
Paraphiliacs are individuals whose sexual arousal and gratification to unusual behaviors are ________ over the usual and accepted sexual patterns for adult. Unusual behaviors that are used to enhance sexual activity with a partner, not to compete with with him or her, are called______________. It is not unusual for several paraphilias to coexist in the same individual. One group of paraphilias commonly seen together are called ____________, short for "disorder of phasing of the courtship behavior." The normal four-phase courtship sequence includes a finding phase, a ___________ phase, _____________ phase, and a copulatory phase.
preferred, sexual variants, courtship disorders, affiliative, tactile
____________ have a disorder of the finding phase and prefer to seek sexual gratification by watching people undress without their knowledge or consent. Two disorders of the affiliative phase are ______________, achieving sexual gratification by exposing one's genitals compulsively in inappropriate settings, and ____________, repeatedly making obscene phone calls for sexual arousal. ________________ is a disorder of the tactile phase and refers to repeatedly achieving sexual arousal by rubbing one's genitals against others in public places. These paraphilias are often associated with _________________, achieving sexual arousal by having sex with _____________ children.
Voyeurs, exhibitionism, telephone scatophilia, frotteurism, pedophilia, prepubertal
_____________ refers to achieving sexual arousal when using or fantasizing about an inanimate object or a specific part of the body. _____________, also called transvestite ______________, refers to sexual arousal and gratification from dressing as a member of the opposite sex. Other fetish-like paraphilias that focus on non-human objects for sexual arousal include ________ (sexual arousal by the act of urination), _______________ (arousal by feces), ____________(arousal by filth), __________ (arousal by given an enema), and _____________ (arousal by sex with animals).
fetishism, transvestism, fetishism, urophilia, coprophilia, mysophilia, klismaphilia, zoophilia
__________ intentionally inflict pain and/or humiliation on others for sexual arousal and gratification, whereas___________ obtain sexual pleasure from having pain and/humiliation inflicted on them. Mainstream S&M is really__________ and ____________ which usually involves acting out well-scripted scenarios. ___________ refers to sexual arousal by having sex with dead babies.
sadists, masochists, dominance, submission, necrophilia
The large majority of paraphiliacs are ___________. Most describe themselves as heterosexual, but have difficulty maintaining intimate (and particularly affectionate) relations. The paraphiliac's behavior(s) allows them to have control over the objects of their sexual arousal. Therapy is generally unsuccessful in eliminating the paraphilia, often because the individual does not want to give it up. However, management of paraphiliacs is sometimes possible by administering ____________ drugs that lower testosterone levels and reduce sexual desire.
all abnormal behaviors are called paraphilias
most men who buy scanty, frilly panties for their female partners have a panty fetish
Young children who occasionally dress up in clothing of the opposite sex usually grow up to be transvestites
most transvestites are heterosexual men and are married
exhibitionists often behave as if they wish to be caught
strippers and nudists are the most common examples of exhibitionists
the best way to react to an exhibitionist is to show disgust
voyeurs often like to go to nudist colonies to observe naked bodies
a person may commit bestiality and not have a paraphilia
individuals involved in D&S act out highly structured scenarios in which pain-inducing behaviors are more symbolic than real
many men in involved in D&S prefer the submissive role and are well educated and successful
most paraphiliacs have difficulties with intimacy
most paraphiliacs wish to be cured
Larry puts a plastic bag over his head when he is highly sexually aroused
Bob has repeated fantasies about himself as a woman while masturbating
Jim has sneaked out to the barn to find a four footed sexual partner
John is highly aroused by watching his partner have a bowel movement
Walter is waiting in his car in the grocery parking lot to show his penis to the first woman who walks by
Bert is hanging around the laundromat hoping to steal the object of his sexual desire from an unwashed basket of clothing
Billy must seek crowded places in order to get away with this paraphilia
Paul has paid a prostitute to give him an enema
Carl is crawling around on his hands and knees and being pulled by a leash in order to get sexually aroused
Lenny is becoming highly aroused by his partner's nasal mucus
Henry is trying to find employment in a morgue in order to act out his paraphiliac fantasies
Joe has volunteered to serve as a counselor at the elementary school's summer camp to have access to the objects of his sexual arousal
susan gets highly aroused when she ties her partner up and orders him to lick her feet
sexual varient example
sam gets highly aroused when his wife wears a negligee or teddy
telephone scatophilia example
David is describing his erect penis to a woman in his class he has called but does not know
Greg is wearing frilly panties and a bra underneath his suit and tie
Stan asks his partner to urinate on him whenever they have sex
allen repeatedly peeks in windows in order to become aroused
Transvestitism is most closely related to
the most frequently caught paraphiliac offenders are
telephone scatophilia is most closely related to
for pedophilia, sex researchers generally define a child as someone who is younger than
weinberg and others have found that the distinctive features in non-clinical sadomasochism are _______ and _________
domaine and submission
urophilia, coprophilia, mysophilia, and klismaphilia involved sexual arousal by _________ and thus might be considered specific types of ___________
bodily discharges, fetishes
the objects of paraphiliacs sexual arousal (ex: used pair of panties) have common that they are
according to simon, deviance is a problem of ______ while perversion is a problem of __________
Sexual assault occurs when a person does not want to have sex but does so as a result of real of threatened use of ______________, as a result of __________, or when he or she is unable to _____________
physical force, coercion, consent or resist
in the US, definitions of what constitutes rape have changed dramatically over time. Historically, the only type of rape that "counted" as crime was __________
forced penil-vaginal intercourse; "carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly and against her will"
today, however, the federal government has adopted a broader definition, and now rape is defined as __________
oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by any body part or object, without consent
there are two basic ways to estimate the prevalence of rape. the first involves analyzing ____________, or the number of cases officially reported to law enforcement
according to these reports, the rape rate has __________ steadily since 1992, though it still remains too high.
Many experts believe that national crime reports like those provided by the FBI seriously ____________ the amount of sexual violence that women (and men) experience
a second, more accurate method of determining rape prevalence involves using data from _________
The results of victimization surveys typically yield much _____ numbers in terms of rape prevalence
most rapes are committed by ______ and happen at _____
someone the victim knows, home
most victims are women between _____ years of age, but anyone can be a victim of rape including children, the elderly, the disabled, and men
12 and 34
Research reveals that about 25% of college men have admitted to using some form of sexual aggression on a dating partner, with between 6% and 8% admitting to actually having committed _______
rape or attempt rape
sometimes, unwanted sex occurs not as a result of ______, which is defined as the use of physically or verbally coercive tactics to gain sexual compliance from another person who does not want to have sex
Taking advantage of someone who is asleep unconscious, or drunk is an example of a ________ tactic, whereas pleading with someone or threatening to end the relationship unless the person complies is an example of a _____ tactic
physical coercive, verbally coercive
some instances of date rape may happen because men and women often misinterpret _______
many of the cues and behaviors that happen on dates, each other's intentions or behaviors
in addition, people sometimes fail to accurately communicate their true intentions or wishes. Examples of this include _____________ which is when someone says "no" but really means "yes", and _____________, which is when someone agrees to sex when he or she really does not want to.
token resistance, compliance
rape in which the perpetrator is the victims spouse is called ____________
some rapes involve more than one assailant, and these _____ rapes are usually more violent than rapes committed by individuals
many states have specific laws that make it illegal for an adult to have sex with anyone under the age of consent; this crime is generally called ___________
research on male rape revels that men, like women, tend to be raped by ___________
men, someone they know
Unlike women, male rape victims are more likely to have been raped during ______.
the coercion used by women is generally ______, while that used by men is generally _____
several personal factors are associated with rape or the likelihood to commit rape, including _____________ which is the dispositional tendency to accept (and to follow) exaggerated gender role stereotypes.
research reveals that most rapists possess ___________ attitudes and beliefs about sex roles and male and female behavior, strong acceptance of ___________, and a tendency to _____________ responsibility for their own actions.
heteronormative, rape myths, deny or minimize
many rapists also show a lack of ___________
many men who commit sexual assault have developmental histories characterized by parental ______________ as well as early exposure to _________
neglect/abuse, sexual violence
rape is much more common in sexually repressive societies that promote and glorify ________, and where large numbers of people to conform to conservative stereotypic gender roles and women occupy an inferior social and economic position
Four rape myths discussed in this chapter include the notions that ______, _______, ________, and women frequently make false accusations of rape. NONE of these myths are true but people who believe them tend to blame the victim for being raped.
women who are raped usually provoke it by their dress and behavior, women subconsciously want to be raped, no woman can be raped if she truly does not want to be
rape victims experience short and long term reactions in what is called ___________.
post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder
in the acute phase, a victims reactions may be either expressive or _____________
in the period of _____________, the victim attempts to regain control of her or his life
U.S supreme court has approved broad ______________ laws to protect victims from feeling as if they are on trial during court proceedings
three basic approaches to rape prevention:
1. safer physical environment and tougher laws and punishments
2. educating women to be less vulnerable to assault
3. social systems perspective, advocates changing societies values and its attitudes toward how men and women interact with one another
unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other unwanted verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace or classroom is called ________
stalking behavior possesses three characteristic features, which are __________
intentional and persistent contact or attempt contact by the stalker/ pursuer that is unwanted by and psychologically aversive to the target
We now know that sexual abuse of children is more widespread than previously believed. Most victims are molested by ______.
someone they know
This type of behavior typically becomes a crime when it poses a credible threat that places the target in fear for his or her
We can divide child molesters into two classifications: the ________ molester, or "true" pedophile, whose primary sexual orientation is to children, and the _____ molester, whose primary sexual orientation is to adults.
a man who is sexually attracted to both female and male children would be identified as a ________________, regardless of his own sexual orientation.
Of pedophiles who have been caught, those who target girls average about 20 victims each, while those who target boys average nearly _____ victims each.
research revels that the "typical" female offender is young, has poor coping skills and an existing psychological issue, and has herself often been the victim of prolonged childhood ___________.
sexual and physical abuse
sexual relations between relatives who are too closely related to marry is called incest. ____________ incest is more common than parent-child incest, although father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest account for 80% of all arrests.
Today, many states have enacted _____ laws that allow a person who has been convicted of a violent sex crime to be civilly committed after he (or she) has served a full prison sentence if it can be demonstrated that he (or she) possesses a mental disorder and poses a continued threat to the community.
a man or woman who has sex with an unconscious person has committed sexual assault. (t/f)
An adult woman cannot be raped if she truly does not want to be raped (t/f)
Rape was originally defined as forcible male-to-female vaginal penetration (t/f)
The percentage of reported rapes that are false is lower than for most other crimes (t/f)
Anyone can be a victim of rape, including a man. (t/f)
if a woman willingly makes out with a man, she cannot charge him with rape if he then forces her to have sexual intercourse (t/f)
verbally pressuring someone to have sex is a form of sexual coercion (t/f)
many (convicted) rapists believe that their victims want to have sex with them or deserve to be raped (t/f)
almost all rapists are found to have some sort of major psychological dysfunction (t/f)
marital rape is a crime in the US (t/f)
Muehlenhard and colleagues found that over one third of all college women had said "no" to a date when they really meant "yes" (to having sex) (t/f()
A man cannot be convicted of rape if the woman agreed to have sexual intercourse. (t/f)
a man cannot be raped by a woman (t/f)
both men and women can commit statutory rape (t/f)
Many victims of rape do not show any emotional reactions afterwards. (t/f)
A man who tells sexual jokes, makes sexual references, and/or stares obsessively at a female coworker cannot be prosecuted for sexual harassment unless he demands sexual favors. (t/f)
most child molesters are known by their victims (t/f)
all pedophiles are child molesters (t/f)
sibling incest is more common than parent-child incest (t/f)
All cultures have some form of incest taboo (t/f)
Victims of sexual abuse tend to blame themselves. (t/f)
albert is tired and really does not want to engage in intercourse, but he gives in when his wife asks him for sex
Brad considers himself to be heterosexual, but he is sexually attracted to both male and female children.
bisexual and pedophile
Chris is sexually attracted to adults, but he has fondled a child and had the child touch his penis. He considers his behavior abnormal.
Doug tells crude sexual jokes and makes sexual comments to his female employees
Katie threatens to end their relationship if her boyfriend refuses to have oral sex with her
Frank is sexually aroused and impulsively forces his date to have sex with him when they are alone
Grant and May are married. Although Grant is not generally physically abusive to May, he uses coercion or force when she is unwilling to have sex
force-only (power) rape
Susan initially says "no" and pulls away from her date when he begins to unbutton her blouse, even though she really does want to have sex with him
Ian has no interest in adults as sexual partners. He is only attracted to children, and has engaged in sexual activities with several of the children in his neighborhood
Before making any sexual advances, Donald makes sure to buy his dates several drinks in order to "loosen them up"
In college, Karen was sexually assaulted at a frat party by two of her classmates
Although they broke up over a year ago and she made it clear that she does not want to see him, Jana's ex-boyfriend keeps following her around campus, showing up at her work, and sending her gifts and text messages
People with mental disabilities are often protected against sexual abuse by the same laws that protect ___________
give four examples of coercive behavior
getting a partner intoxicated in order to have sex, having sex with someone who is asleep or unconscious, using guilt, anger, or pleading to get someone to comply, verbally threatening to end the relationship, continuing to persist over the others objections
in _________ rape, the individual responsibility for things a person does can be diffused or forgotten
the majority of date rapes are probably committed by ______ rapists
in the ____________ of post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder, victims attempt to regain control of their lives
period of long-term reorganization
Charges of sexual harassment are usually prosecuted as civil suits under Title VII of the __________ of 1964.
civil rights act
sexual harassment usually occurs in a relationship where there is _____________
unequal power/power differential
Research has shown that the more a man believes in ______, the more accepting he is of sexual harassment
traditional stereotypical gender roles
Teenagers who have sex with other teenagers are often protected from prosecution for statutory rape by ____ laws.
romeo and juliet
Sex is a multibillion-dollar-a-year business. Sexually explicit media are not new to our contemporary society. Detailed cave etchings and stone carving have been discovered that date from (1)________.
human prehistory ( Paleolistic period)
Written material has also been discovered, including the 5th-century Indian guide to love, courtship, marriage, and family life that is called the (2)________.
In the United States, commercially released the films often contained sexual contect until the movie industry voluntarily developed the (3)___________ in 1927 in an effort prevent (4)________.
Production Codes ( Hays Code), government regulation( oversight, interference, involvment)
Some of the topics that were banned from being show in films included (5)________, (6)_________, and (7)____________. Today, of course, movies and other commercial media routinely contain sexual themes and content.
one of these: nudity, suggestive dancing, lustful kissing
The (8)_________, in particular, has made it possible for just about everyone with access to a computer, cell phone, or other web-enabled device to acess sexually explicit content.
Although reliable statistics are difficult to obtain, it is estimated that the web porn is (9)___________-dollar-a-year industry.
Internet users can download or watch pornography from adult websites, visit (10)_________ sites that offer live streaming of sex acts, or visit sites devoted to erotic fac fiction.
Research indicates that (11)_________ are the primary consumers of online video and webcam pornography, whereas (12)__________ are more likely to access erotic fan fiction sites.
men and boys (males), women and girls (females)
(13)________ is a general term that refers to media with an uplifting sexual theme meant to be artisitic and present an intimate and celebratory vision of sexuality.
Sexually explicit commercial media that is specifically designed to generate arousal is generally referred to like (14)________.
In determining whether sexually explicit media is protected by the First Amendment ( or not), courts rely on the (15)_______________.
Miller Test ( or Three- Part Obscenity Test)
The three provisions of this test specify the material is obscene ( and thus not protected by the First Amendment) if (a) the average person, applying (16)_________, would find that the material appeals to prurient ( unwholesome ) desires or interests; (b) the material depicts sexual conduct in a patently or blatantly (17)_________ as defined by state law; and (c) the material lacks (18)__________.
contemporary community standards, offensive way, " serious literacy, artistic, political, or scientific value"
Research on the use of pornography in the United States reveals that about (19)___________ as many men as women have watched at least one pornographic movie in the past year.
Interestingly, despite what social commentators often claim, the rates of pornography consumption in recent years appear to have (20)___________.
remained stable ( been stable, stayed the same)
However, rates of pornography use are generally (21)__________ among younger than older adults.
Men generally have a more (22)_______ attitude toward pornography than women.
Although most people use pornography because it produces sexual arousal, teenagers and young adults often are motivated by (23)______ and (24)__________.
any one of these: curiosity, desire for information, interesting exploring sexual identity ( for both).
Because of concerns about the possible harmful effects of pornography on those who use it, the federal government has authorized two large-scale investigations. The Commission established in 1968 by President Johnson concluded that exposure to pornography ( in adults) was (25)________ with sex crimes and other deviant/harmful behavior.
not associated with ( not liked with, not related to)
However, the Commission established in 1985 by President Reagan concluded that nudity was not harmful but that exposure to (26)________ and (27)________ pornography was associated with rape myth acceptance and other attitudes that support violence against women.
nonviolent but degrading, violent
Finally, the Commission concluded that one type of pornography ---specifically, (28)____________ pornography---did cause physically aggressive behavior against women.
Subsequent research has shown that both men and women become physilogically aroused by sexually explicit material. However, continued exposure generally produces a reduction in sexual interest. This phenomenon is known as (29)__________.
Research also reveals that men's arousal is category-specific; that is, heterosexual men are most aroused by images of (30)__________ having sex, whereas homosexual men are most aroused by images of (31)________ having sex.
Women, on the other hand, are capable of becoming physiologically aroused by too many different types of people engaged in sexual activity. Interestingly, although both men and women become genitally aroused by pornography, men generally have a (32)_________ emotional reaction than women and report higher levels of (33)________.
more positive, subjective sexual arousal
Pornography use is associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in certain types of risky sexual behavior, including (34)___________, (35)_________, and (36)________.
any one of these: a greater number of sex partners overall, 35. a greater number of casual sex partners, 36. younger age first intercourse, prostitution, extramarital sex,
Among college students, pornography use is associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing one of the riskiest types of sex: (37)___________.
causal hookup, with penetration, without a condom, while intoxicated
Frequency of pornography use is also associated with several psychological outcomes, including (38)_________ and, among men in particular, (39)___________.
one of these: depression, anxiety, stress, poor overall quality of life, negative body image
In fact, the more pornography that men watch, the less satisfied they are with (40)_________.
own penis size
Finally, research reveals that men and women who watch pornography tend to report less (41)___________ with their current relationship and less (42)________ to their partner. They are also more likely to flirt with others and to commit infidelity.
Research has generally confirmed the Meese Commission's conclusion about the association between pornography and rape-supportive attitudes. Among both men and women, the amount or level of pornography consumption is positively associated with (43)__________.
rape myth acceptance
In addition, often results in men becoming (44)___________ toward rape victims, having greater belief in (45)__________, and being more likely to say that they would (46)___________.
less sympathetic, rape myths, commit rape
Prospective investigations, in which participants are followed over time, demonstrate that men who use pornography at one point in time are more likely to engage in (47)______ at a later point in time.
In fact, both men and women who view greater amounts of pornography are more likely to report having used (48)________ to obtain sex compared to those who view lower amounts.
one of these: physical force, threats of physical force, verbal coercion
Finally, laboratory experiments using male participants reveal that exposure to both violent and nonviolent pornography actually produces (49)_________ against women ( but not men)>
It is no wonder that scientists and government officials are concerned about exposure to pornography. However, many behavioral scientists believe that sexually explicit material is not harmful in and of itself, but that it can become harmful when it includes themes/scenes that are (50)________ and/or (51)__________. There is solid evidence in support of this contention.
violent ( or demanding), demeaning ( or violent)
Should we ban or allow pornography? Most people find some types of sexually explicit material offensive but attempt to censor or ban this material to raise questions about First Amendment rights. We know that children and adolescents are concerned about the sexual (and also the violent) images they are exposed to online. We also know that most pornography portrays women ( and men, though less so) in a demeaning manner and emphasize the (52)___________ aspects of sex while ignoring its (53)_________ aspects.
physical, genital ( one or both), emotional, cognitive, interpersonal ( any or all), emotional, cognitive, interpersonal ( any or all)
Many experts emphasize the importance of (54)__________ about sexuality with children, adolescents, and each other and encourage parents, teachers, and those who make pornographic media to present a more holistic, personal, intimate, and " sex-positive " script to counteract the harmful outcomes we have discussed in this chapter. The bottom line is that there may always be a tension between First Amendment rights and the desire to protect the public interest. It is not easy to decide where to draw the line.
Prostitution is illegal in all parts of the United States except for a few countries in (55)______________.
In many countries, prostitution is illegal; however, some countries have adopted a (56)______________ approach in which an individual prostitute and client can exchange sex and money but brothel keeping, pimping, and other forms of facilitating prostitution are illegal.
Other countries have adopted a decriminalization approach, which only the individual who (57)__________ sex is exempt from arrest and persecution.
Worldwide, the number of people ( mostly girls and women) engage in prostitution is estimated to be around (58)______________.
In western countries, about (59)___________% of individuals have exchanged sex for money ( in the United States, about 3.5% of teens have done so).
There are different types of prostitution, all of which can be differentiated by whether they occur outside or inside. Among female prostitutes, (60)__________ occurs outride and is the riskiest and least profitable form of sex for hire ( for women who engage in it).
street prostitution or streetwalking
Women who solicit in bars, hotels, casinos, or clubs are referred to as (61)________; like street prostitutes, many of them have pimps who take the majority of their earnings.
Another establishment-based type of prostitution is (62)_____________, which is the only type of prostitution currently legal in the United States.
Another type of " inside " prostitution involves outcall work, in which prostitutes advertise their services through an agency, broker, ad listing service, or personal website. Women who work as (63)___________ and (64)_______ typically charge more than brothel, bar, or club prostitutes.
escorts ( or call girls), call girls ( or escorts)
Male streetwalkers are often referred to like (65)_________, and like their female counterparts, they usually cater to men. Escorts and gigolos, however, Amy also have (66)__________ clients.
hustlers/rent boys, female
The primary reason most individuals engage in prostitution is (67)___________.
Many prostitutes also were abused as children and have a history of (68)________________.
substance use, abuse , or addiction
Unfortunately, prostitution itself is likely to further contribute to these issues . Many prostitutes continue to suffer financially, are likely to experience violence at the hands of their clients, and also suffer from a variety of mental health issues including (69)_______________.
depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms ( one of these)
Most have difficulties establishing positive romantic relationships and feel unable to seek (70)__________ from friends and family.
Research on the customer who buys sex reveals that only (71)__________ American men go to prostitutes regularly for sex.
a small percentage of
Those who purchase sex from women are almost all (72)____________, though they are a fairly diverse group.
Men who buy sex from escorts are more likely to be white, married, and more educated and have higher (73)___________ compared to those who use the services of streetwalkers.
Men who pay for sex from streetwalkers tend to want (74)____________, whereas men who go to escorts and call girls seems to want what has been described as (75)___________ ( both sexual and emotional gratification).
sex, the " girlfriend experience "
Sex trafficking is a global problem. Over (76)__________ million people are enslaved each year, with approximately (77)__________% forced to engage in commercial sex work or sold as private sex slaves.
Attitudes about prostitution are mixed around the world, with many completely opposed to it and others feeling that it is at least somewhat acceptable under some circumstances. People who believe in legalization often argue that prostitution should be understood and treated as a(n) (78)___________.
legitimate business, commercial enterprise, industry, trade ( one of these)
Opponents of legalization argue that prostitution lacks the characteristics of a traditional commercial enterprise and that viewing it as such ignores the (79)__________ in which it occurs.
Regardless of which perspective people adopt, research shows that legalization has generally noted much of a positive impact on the life circumstances of prostitutes themselves or on (80)__________.
public health, public welfare
Each year, Americans spend more on sex than they do on professional sports.
Sexually explicit media is a recent human invention.
Early (1910s-1920s) American movies featured more nudity and sexuality than movies in the 1930s and 1940s.
It is easy to obtain reliable information on Internet pornography and erotica because most adult website operators publish statics about site visitation and revenue.
Almost all customers who visit live streaming (webcam) porn sites are male.
Some scholars believe that erotica fan fiction sites create a more " welcoming sexual space " for women and girls.
The major difference between erotica and pornography is that erotica is artistic and pornography is obscene.
In the United States, legal pornography refers to sexually explicit and arousing commercial material that is protected under the First Amendment.
About twice as many men watch pornography as women.
Pornography usage has dramatically increased in the past several years.
Both of the Presidential Commissions formed to investigate the impact of pornography concluded that it had no negative effects and should be completely legalized.
Research suggest that people who watch a lot of pornography eventually become habituated to it (fins it less arousing).
People who use pornography tend to have more sexually permissive attitudes than people who do not.
People who watch a lot of pornography are more likely to believe that their friends approve of forced sex than men who do not watch.
Brothel prostitution has a long historical association with slavery.
In the United States, prostitution is legal only in Nevada and New Mexico.
Most women and men who enter prostitution do so because they really enjoy sex.
Many prostitutes have a background characterized by childhood abuse and current drug and alcohol use/ abuse.
Those countries who've elected to legalize prostitution, this appears to have produced a great many social benefits, including reducing sex trafficking and reducing the number of women who enter prostitution.
Monica solicits customers out of a bar she hangs out at in the evenings.
Legal and licensed establishment in Nevada where customers can come and pay to have sex with the women who work there.
Call girl example
Phoebe works out of her own apartment, and her clients must make an appointment to have sex with her.
Joey advertises his services on the Internet and is paid by older women to have sex and accompany them to social events.
Sam accepts money from men on the street who want to have sex with him.
Chandler drives along the street at night looking for women today for oral-genital sex.
Ross takes 75% of the money earned by six women who do tricks on the west side of town.
Lydia walks the streets at night looking for customers willing to pay her for sex.
Rachel works in Amsterdam. Every nights she stands in front a window on the street and tries to solicit customers
Bonnie works for an exclusive agency that sets her up on " dates " with financially stable businessmen; she then makes arrangements to provide additional sexual services for a fee.
A subtype of sexual masochism in which sexual arousal is achieved by restricting breathing.
Practices involving bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and/or sadomasochism. Also a subculture or community of people who regularly practice these activities, often with role playing and always in a mutual, consensual, and recreational manner
The act of having sexual contact with an animal.
Repeated and persistent sexual arousal to feces or the act of defecation.
A group of paraphilias (voyeurism, exhibitionism, frotteurism, and telephone scatophilia) often seen together.
power and influence over others
Repeatedly and persistently fantasizing about or actually exposing one's genitals to others in inappropriate settings in order to obtain sexual gratification. Becomes a disorder if the person acts on the urges, experiences distress, experiences impairment of normal functioning, and/or causes harm or risk of harm to others.
A condition in which sexual arousal and gratification are dependent on using or fantasizing about an inanimate object or body part (if body part, often referred to as partialism). Becomes a disorder if the urges or behaviors cause harm to the individual or to others or impair normal functioning.
A condition in which sexual arousal and gratification are achieved repeatedly and primarily by rubbing one's genitals against others in public places (or fantasizing about doing so). This becomes a disorder if the urge to engage in these acts leads to illegal behavior, causes harm to others, produces psychological distress, and/or impairs normal functioning
Repeated and persistent sexual arousal to enemas (receiving, giving, watching).
(Sexual) A paraphilia in which individuals obtain sexual pleasure primarily from fantasizing about or actually having pain and/or humiliation inflicted on them. Becomes a disorder (sexual masochism disorder) when the individual experiences clinically significant distress or impaired functioning and/or acts on the urges with a nonconsenting person.
A condition in which sexual arousal is persistently and preferentially caused by filth or filthy surroundings or objects.
Sexual arousal by a corpse.
General term for a group of uncommon sexual preferences in which repeatedly fantasizing about and/or engaging in sexual activity with non-human, non-mature, and/or nonconsenting partners is the preferred way of obtaining sexual arousal and gratification.
A paraphilia that is accompanied by significant personal distress, that impairs normal functioning (social, occupational, etc.), and/or that has been acted on with a nonconsenting partner or causes harm or risk of harm to another.
A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved primarily and repeatedly through fantasizing about or engaging in sexual activity with children who have not reached puberty. Becomes a disorder if the individual acts on his or her urges (as children cannot legally give consent), if the urges cause distress, and/or if the urges impair normal functioning. Note that activity is not required to have pedophilia; thus, it is possible to have this paraphilia and not act on it (and therefore not be a child molester).
(Sexual) A paraphilia in which individuals repeatedly and intentionally inflict or desire to inflict pain on others in order to achieve sexual arousal and gratification. Becomes a disorder (sexual sadism disorder) when the individual experiences clinically significant distress or impaired functioning and/or acts on the urges with a nonconsenting person.
(S&M) A term used to indicate the linkage of sadism with masochism.
Unusual sexual behaviors, urges, or fantasies that are engaged in infrequently, perhaps for the sake of variety, and are not the preferred manner of becoming sexually aroused.
the action or fact of accepting or yielding to a superior force or to the will or authority of another person.
Sometimes called telephone scatophilia; a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved by repeatedly and persistently making (or fantasizing about making) obscene telephone calls. Becomes a paraphilic disorder when the urges/actions cause harm to others or the individual and/or impair normal functioning.
Same meaning as transvestism.
A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by dressing as a member of the opposite sex
Repeated and persistent sexual arousal caused by urine or the act of urination.
Repeatedly seeking sexual arousal by observing people who are naked, getting undressed, or engaging in sexual activity without their knowledge or consent. This becomes a disorder if it is accompanied by distress, impairment of normal functioning, and/or causes harm or risk of harm to others (in addition, the individual must be at least 18 years of age).
Using sexual contact with animals as the primary means of achieving sexual gratification.
Acquaintance or date rape
A rape committed by someone who is known by and/or is dating the victim
battering (anger) rape
occurs in the context of domestic abuse. The victim experiences forced sex as well as physical violence and coercive control from her spouse. In these relationships, the perpetrator engages in multiple forms of aggression and often uses sex as a means to express anger and hurt the partner. This type of marital rape is illustrated in the first and second case examples above.
Agreeing to sexual activity when you do not really want to engage in it.
Rape in which a victim is assaulted by more than one attacker.
an exaggerated adherence to a feminine gender role as it relates to heterosexual relationships.
Tendency to endorse and rigidly adhere to exaggerated and extreme sex role stereotypes; high levels are linked with likelihood to commit (among men) or to experience (among women) sexual coercion and assault.
exaggerated forms of masculinity, virility, and physicality.
Sexual contact between two closely related persons.
Rape in which the victim is a man.
(intimate partner) Nonconsensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse (or other long-term partner).
Rapists motivated by a desire for sex who rape impulsively when there is an opportunity.
A family in which there are both multiple incestuous abusers and multiple victims, across generations and within the same generation
Post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder
A group of clinical symptoms displayed by many victims of rape; previously called rape trauma syndrome. It includes an acute phase (involving initial physical and psychological recovery from the attack) and long-term psychological reorganization (involving attempts to deal with the long-term effects of the attack and to prevent a future rape).
Force-only (power) rape
involving the imposition of power and control over another
(pedophiles) Child molesters who have a primary sexual orientation to children and who are relatively uninterested in adult partners (they are pedophiles based on their sexual preference pattern, and molesters based on their actions). The DSM-5 would classify these individuals as having pedophilic disorder.
Oral, anal, or vaginal penetration without a person's consent or when a person is incapable of giving consent.
Widespread mistaken beliefs about rape.
Laws that are designed to make the prosecution of rapists easier and to prevent the victims from feeling as if they are the ones on trial.
rape that involves torture or perverse sexual acts. This type of marital rape tends to be very violent and result in physical injuries.
Unwanted or nonconsensual sexual contact that occurs as a result of force or the threatened use of force, as a result of coercion, or when the person is unable to consent or resist (e.g., intoxicated, asleep, unconscious, under the legal age of consent).
The act of forcing another person into unwanted sexual activity by physical or verbal coercion (pressure, manipulation, use of drugs or alcohol).
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or verbal/physical conduct of a sexual nature that persist after the recipient has indicated that they are unwanted. See text for an expanded definition.
Sexually violent predator laws
Laws allowing for the civil commitment of convicted violent sex offenders after they have served their prison sentence if it can be shown that they pose a continued threat (that is, are likely to reoffend).
Child molesters who have a primary sexual orientation to adults (and, thus, are not pedophiles). They have sex with children impulsively and regard their behavior as abnormal.
Repeated pursuit of another individual who does not want a relationship.
Sexual intercourse by an adult with a (consenting) partner who is not yet of the legal "age of consent." Sometimes called "carnal knowledge of a juvenile."
Rape (forcible sexual penetration) committed by someone who is not known by the victim.
Saying "no" to sex when one means "yes."
Rape that is committed by soldiers, combatants, or civilians during times of war, armed conflict, or military occupation. Used to destabilize, displace, and terrorize a targeted community.
Female prostitutes who work in bars, hotels, casinos, or clubs, generally with the approval of the ownership.
Prostitution associated with a particular establishment; customers are solicited in bars, hotel lobbies, casinos, clubs, massage parlors, or brothels.
Prostitutes who are usually self-employed but may use a broker or verification service, who provide sexual services only, and who often work out of their homes.
Art, literature, and other media that has an uplifting sexual theme. Designed to be artistic and celebratory of sexuality and the human body.
Prostitutes who are usually under contract to an agency and who may provide social as well as sexual services.
Prostitution associated with a particular establishment; customers are solicited in bars, hotel lobbies, casinos, clubs, massage parlors, or brothels.
A male prostitute who engages in out call sex; works for an agency or is self-employed (more common). May provide social as well as sexual services and typically charges more than street or establishment-based prostitutes.
Streetwalker or rent boy; a male prostitute who works on the street and typically caters to men.
In legal terminology, material that by contemporary community standards depicts patently offensive sexual conduct, lacks serious value, and appeals to prurient interests.
Prostitution in which sexual services are advertised via an agency, broker, or personal ad and clients are met at designated indoor locations.
Entertainment media that is designed to cause sexual arousal and excitement and whose primary purpose is commercial (to generate revenue). Legal pornography is protected under the First Amendment; illegal pornography is not protected under the First Amendment.
Sex for hire or the knowing exchange of sexual activity or contact for money or items of value.
a usually young male prostitute
A form of human trafficking or modern slavery in which a child or adult is coerced, forced, or deceived into prostitution or other types of sex work.
Term commonly used to describe the exchange of sexual services for money or goods.
Sexually explicit media
Drawings, paintings, sculpture, literature, and other forms of art or communication that depict or describe human sexual anatomy and behavior.
Street prostitution (streetwalking)
Prostitution that occurs in public settings; customers are solicited on a street or road and sexual activity occurs in a car, outside a building, or in a hotel room or apartment.
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