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Terms in this set (84)
A combination of notes played at the same time to create a chord (the way the music fits together).
A scale pattern made up of intervals of whole and half steps (was replaced in the Baroque period with major and minor scales).
A key whose harmony is based on the major scale which sounds happy (developed in the Baroque period by adding accidentals).
A key based on the minor scale which sounds sad or depressing (developed in the Baroque period by adding accidentals).
Baroque period: forms and designs (8)
- Dance Suite
Baroque period: What happened to the Orchestra?
- Started to take shape, mainly in the strings.
- Still a continuo.
- A lot of contrast, especially in dynamics.
- Echo effects.
Baroque period: Most dominant instrument
Violin (most important in orchestras).
Baroque period: Key musical features (18)
- Music is generally polyphonic in texture OR homophonic, chorale-like texture in chorus.
- There is usually a harpsichord/organ/cello basso continuo (figured bass) part (very prominent).
- Music is clearly defined in major and minor keys.
- Long melodies (long phrase lengths).
- Flowing imitation between soloist and keyboard instrument.
- Much use of sequence.
- Terraced dynamics are employed where the music is either loud or soft, depending on the texture of the music.
- Ornaments used frequently.
- Simple diatonic harmony.
- Use of an obbligato solo.
- Instrument with solo voice.
- Repeated, extended motif (idee fixe).
- Small orchestra.
- Dissonant (more than Classical).
- One mood throughout entire piece.
- Important string sections.
- Energetic rhythms (exuberance).
- Contrasts in dynamics and timbres.
Polyphonic (polyphony)/counterpoint/ contrapuntal
Where more than one melody line/tune, and many rhythms of the music interweave with each other. They are often used in Fugues.
The repetition of a phrase of melody/tune of an instrument or vocal part using a different instrument.
Several repetitions of a melodic figure or phrase (a pattern of notes) at different pitches- moving up or down by step. It has the effect of smoothly flowing lines of melody.
An embellishment or decoration to the melody- musical enhancements (Trills, Appoggiatura, Turn, Acciaccatura, Mordent).
Bass line for the continuo player (harpsichord/organ/lute; cello/bass) shown by numbers below the base line, indicating the intervals of the chords to be played.
Continuously moving bass line throughout the piece.
The distance between two pitches or notes; usually expressed in steps.
Expressive style typical of some early music in which volume levels shift abruptly from soft to loud and back without gradual crescendos and decrescendos.
A quavering or vibratory sound, especially a rapid alternation of sung or played notes.
A grace note which delays the next note of the melody, taking half or more of its written time value.
A grace note performed as quickly as possible before an essential note of a melody.
A melodic embellishment consisting of a rapid alternation of a principal tone with the tone a half or a whole step below it, called single or short when the auxiliary tone occurs once and double or long when this occurs twice or more.
(Of a scale, interval, etc.) involving only notes proper to the prevailing key without chromatic alteration.
An instrumental part, typically distinctive in effect, which is integral to a piece of music and should not be omitted in performance.
A dominant or recurring idea in an artistic work- a short melodic phrase.
A musical texture which involves many melody lines/pitches but only ONE rhythm played together (moving in chords).
Notes arranged rhythmically to create a musical phrase (the tune).
Made up of:
- strings (1st and 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses)
- woodwind (a pair of flutes, oboes, oboe d'amore, recorders)
- brass (3 trumpets)
- percussion (kettle drums, timpani)
- keyboard (harpsichord)
- 1-2 bassoons
- 1-2 horns
A passage or phrase performed by just one voice or instrument e.g. organ prelude, violin partita.
Choirs (sometimes a capella) or accompanied by ensembles or harpsichord.
Definition: A group of instruments/solo group of instruments (In a concerto: the rest of the orchestra).
The Baroque composers made use of contrasts between groups of instruments and solo instruments.
An opening piece
Vocal music performed without instrumental accompaniment.
The beat in a percussion line, or any other line.
How 'thick' or 'thin' the music is.
Type of sound given by an instrument.
A suite, typically for a solo instrument or chamber ensemble.
Clashing notes that do not fit.
How loud or soft (volume) a piece of music is.
Composers of the Baroque period
- MONTEVERDI (Opera)
- PURCELL (Opera)
- VIVALDI (Violin, Concerto grosso, Solo concerto)
- BACH (Fugue, Passion, Cantata)
- HANDEL (Oratorio)
- A. SCARLATTI (Italian overture/Ternary form)
- PERI (Opera)
- Sounds much brighter than a modern trumpet.
- Parts were florid and difficult to play.
- Typically Baroque
- Very distinctive tone colour
- Main keyboard instrument.
- Reed instrument.
- Two kinds: oboe, oboe d'amore (latter is lower in pitch)
Replaced the viol.
The quality of sound or timbre of an instrument.
The position of a tone in a musical scale; dependent on the speed of the vibrations from the instrument; a fast speed produces a high pitch, and a slow speed produces a low sound.
A string instrument used primarily in the Baroque period.
Orchestral musical form (Fugue)
- Contrapuntal piece, based upon the idea of imitation.
- Usually written in 3 or 4 parts ('voices') referred to as Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass.
- Detailed structure is very large and complicated.
- Entire piece grows mainly from a single brief tune (main melody) of strong musical character (subject), and it has counter-melodies (counter subjects) which are repeated by the other voices in turn each at higher and lower pitches and different keys and can also be altered in different ways.
- The effect is of very interweaving textures.
Orchestral musical form (overture)
A piece of instrumental music written in 1 movement. It's often used as an introduction to an opera or oratorio.
Italian overture/ Ternary form/ De capo
Definition: Musical structure in 3 sections: quick, slow, quick (ABA)
Scarlatti designed the arias in his operas in da capo form.
French overture/ Ternary form/ De capo
Musical structure in 3 sections: slow, quick, slow (ABA)
Orchestral musical form (concerto)
Solo instrument accompanied by orchestra, usually in 3 movements.
Orchestral musical form (Concerto grosso)
Contrasting groups of instruments: Small group of solo instruments (two violins, cello) called the concertino, and an orchestra of strings (accompanying instruments) called the ripieno/tutti.
Vocal/Choral Musical form (Opera)
A plot set to music for solo singers and chorus with orchestral accompaniment (instrumental pieces), and dances. This is all done by a small orchestra. It contained music-drama (blend together well). The music heightens the dramatic impact.
Two main features: recitative, aria
Vocal/choral musical form (Recitative/ Monody/Singspiel)
Definition: A style which is a cross between singing and reciting/dialogue (quickly sung dialogue). The voice line follows the natural speech rhythms of the words.
Definition: A single voice line supported by an instrumental bass line to be played by a low stringed instrument (cello), upon which chords are constructed.
Vocal/choral musical form (Aria)
A song usually for a solo voice with orchestral accompaniment.
Where a section returns (a lot of instrumental ritornello before each verse of the aria).
Vocal/Choral Musical form (Oratorio)
Similar to opera (has arias, choruses and recitatives) but it is performed as a concert without costumes or acting (given musical presentation only) and the words have religious meaning (based on a sacred story).
Vocal/Choral Musical form (Chorale Prelude)
A solemn hymn tune harmonized in 4 parts, invariably without syncopation. It is usually for organ. Could be in Fugal style, or a set of variations.
An off-beat rhythm.
A special oratorio in which the words tell the story about the suffering and the death of Jesus (Christ's crucifixion).
A short oratorio with solos, chorus and instrumental sections accompanied by orchestra and continuo. It means sung.
Definition: To be sounded (played). A work of several movements, for one or two instruments.
- Baroque sonatas were for two violins and continuo (cello, harpsichord)- trio sonatas (only three music lines- harpsichord plays figured bass). A violin was sometimes replaced with a flute or an oboe.
Two types: Sonata da camera, Sonata da chiesa
Sonata da camera
Chamber sonata- these were meant to be played in people's homes. The continuo would be played by harpsichord or lute.
Sonata da chiesa
Church sonata- played in churches. The continuo was played by organ. These were far more serious than chamber sonatas.
What happened to instrumental music during the Baroque period?
It became equally as important as vocal music.
Vocal/choral musical form (Suite)
- A collection of dances for one or more instruments.
- Many were written for the harpsichord.
- Sometimes a suite began with a prelude.
- Pieces were in the same key.
- Pieces were in binary form or rondo form.
German Allemande (Suite)
- 4/4 time
- At a moderate speed
French Courante/ Italian Corrente (Suite)
- 3/2 time
- At a moderately fast speed
Spanish Sarabande (Suite)
In a slow triple time
- Usually in compound time
- Before or after the Gigue a composer might introduce dances such as the minuet, a bourde, a gavotte, or a passepied.
- In 3 time
- Slow and stately waltz
A medium-paced French dance, popular in the 18th century.
A Breton dance similar to a quick minuet, popular in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Musical structure/form consisting of two units: AB constructed to balance and complement each other.
Structure takes the form: ABACADA etc.
More than one choir
An extra note added as an embellishment and not essential to the harmony or melody.
Grew out of the Concerto Grosso, and has a single instrument solo, and a string orchestra. There are solo sections and tutti sections. Quick movements were in ritornello form: Tutti 1, Solo 1, Tutti 2, Solo 2, etc.
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