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277 terms

AP Euro

AP Euro Midyear Review
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Humanism
The philosophy of the liberal arts that emphasized human beings and their achievements
"Universal Man"
This was the term given to those in the Renaissance who were able to excel in more than one subject matter
Johann Gutenberg
Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
Doge
The ruler of Venice
Oligarchy
The rule of a nation or state by a few people
Guelph
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
Ghibeleines
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire
Francesco Sforza
The Duke of Florence and the old ruler of the city-states of Italy
Cosmo deMedici
One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
Lorenzo the Magnificent
This was an artistic patron that spent vast sums on family chapels, frescoes, religious panels and
Dante
First comedy writer that wrote 100 verses that described the realms of the next world
Giotto
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
Masaccio
He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
Botticelli
The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work: slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders
Brunelleschi
He was an architect who designed a hospital for orphans and foundlings set up by the silk-workers guild in Florence
Donatello
One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works
Da Vinci
One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
The Prince
A short political treatise about political power: how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
Renaissance Popes
These were general title given to the popes that would convince the Renaissance artists to work for them in order to enhance the majesty of the churches
Savonarola
A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city
Petrarch
The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era
The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands
The Courtier
A treatise that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman
Titan
A Venetian man who created the style of mannerism in which artists sometimes distorted figures to express emotion and drama
Northern Humanism
This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions
Utopia
A work that presents a revolutionary view of society and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere off the mainland of the New World. He created the name utopia as a good place which is no place
Erasmus
This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith
Rabelais
He was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and humanist. He is regarded as an avant-garde writer of fantasy and satire
Shakespeare
This man wrote several plays and poems and is regarded as one of the best writers of all time
Cervantes
This man was a poet, playwright and novelist and wrote one of the best known novels ever (Don Quixote)
El Cid
This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table
Protestantism
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
Simony
The common crime of paying for holy offices for the position of power
Nepotism
This was the other common crime in which the members of the church would give positions to relatives
Sale of Indulgences
This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
Banking Families
These were the major families in Europe that had the most power and control of the wealth in a state
Wycliffe
This was one o the original men to challenge the church. His writings became "scriptures" for other reformers to follow.
Hus
A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy
Martin Luther
This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church
Ninety-five Theses
This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance
Johann Tetzel
This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
Diet of Worms
This was the conference that Charles V called to bring Martin Luther to speak
Frederick Elector of Saxony
This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
Peasants' War
This was the revolt that occurred in Germany where the peasants rebelled alongside the new Protestant thought. They were viciously quashed and the public appeal to the Reformation went substantially down
Peace of Augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following
Ulrich Zwingli
This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy
Meeting at Marburg
This was the meeting that tried to settle the dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
John Calvin
This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship
Institutes of the Christian Religion
This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin
Predestination
One of the main points of Calvinism that said that God had already determined if you were damned or saved
John Knox
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
Puritan
This was one of the reforms in England in which the leaders wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England eliminated
Henry VIII
This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
Edward VI
During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country
Mary I
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Anabaptists
These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
Council of Trent
This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants
Pope Paul III
This was the Pope that called the Council of Trent
Ignatius of Loyola
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
Jesuits
This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity
Francis Xavier
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Index of Prohibited Literature
This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers
Spanish Inquisition
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
Gold Glory and God
This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians
Favorable balance of trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
Modern imperialism
This was the start of the building of foreign empires for trade and military advantages over other states
Prince Henry the Navigator
This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators
Diaz
This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around
da Gama
This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
Cabral
This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
Columbus
This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.
Vespucci
This was the man who first said that the Americas were completely separate from Asia, thus the continent was named after him
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Line of Demarcation
This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil and Spain the rest of South America
"Conquistadors"
This was the name given to the Spanish explorers who would conquer the land they discovered and utilize the resources they found there for Spain
Magellan
This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world
Northwest Passage
This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly
Commercial revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
Valois
This was a German dynasty that often had conflicts with the Habsburgs that often involved other countries and papal troops
Francis I
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
Huguenots
These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties
War of the Three Henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
Henry IV of France
This was the king who issued the Edict of Nantes
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Philip II of Spain
This was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies
Dutch Revolt
This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
Thirty Years' War
This was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe
"Spanish Armada"
This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
Edict of Nantes
This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
Louis XIII
This French king appointed Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Louis XIV
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
Cardinal Mazarin
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
Jean Bodin
This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice
Thomas Hobbes
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
Peace of Utrecht
This was the treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession
The Stuarts
This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Roundheads and Cavaliers
These were the two sides of the English civil war. The Roundheads were the Puritan supporters of the Parliament and the Cavaliers were the supporters of Charles I
Oliver Cromwell
This was the dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. His death provided the military government collapse of England
Rump Parliament
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
The Commonwealth of England
This was the name that England took on after the civil war and the kingship was abolished
The Protectorate
This was the name of the military dictatorship that England took on during the reign of Oliver Cromwell
The Restoration
This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
Charles II
This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
Test Act of 1673
This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights
Habeas Corpus Act
This was act in which any people unlawfully detained could be prosecuted
Whigs and Tories
These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
Glorious Revolution
This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)
This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown
William and Mary
These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
House of Orange
This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
Stadholder
This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
Hapsburgs
This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Pragmatic Sanction
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Hohenzollerns
This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia
Frederick William (The Great Elector)
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Romanovs
This was the ruling class of Russia after the Cossack Rebellion
Peter the Great
This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
Partition of Poland
This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria
Copernicus
This was the man who first theorized that the celestial bodies all revolved around a fixed sun
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Galileo
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
Newton
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
Bacon
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
Descartes
This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds: a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method
Vesalius
This was the scientist who began to study anatomy in depth. He is referred as the father of anatomy
Harvey
This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow
Boyle
This was the physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
Modern liberalism
This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
Effects of the Scientific Revolution
This involved the beginning of using reason to solve problems in the community by using inductive and deductive reasoning
Philosophes
These were the French philosophers
Salons
These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines
Encyclopedia
This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
Philosophy of the Enlightenment
This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
Role of reason
The Enlightenment thinkers used reason to deduct conclusions about everyday life
Natural laws
These were conclusions reached by the philosophes against which debate was impossible
Deism
This was a way of thinking that God exists, but does not intervene in daily life, for he already has a plan for the universe that cannot be altered
"Separation of powers"
This was the theory developed by Montesquieu that political power should not be divided and share by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
Voltaire
This was a playwright and a philosophe who said that the best that one could hope for in a government is a good monarch and he even often criticized the Catholic Church and government in his plays
Emile
This work advocated breast feeding and natural dress and that boys' education should have plenty of fresh air and exercise and he said a women's nature was a life of marriage and child rearing
Physiocrats
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Wealth of Nations
This work criticized mercantilism by saying that it meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites
Rousseau
This man's work was extremely influential for the Romantic Movement
Kant
This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
Pietism
This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs
Quakers
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
Methodism
This movement said that all men and women who sought salvation might be saved, giving the people a message of hope
War of Austrian Succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Seven Years' War
This war was began as a follow-up of the War of Austrian Succession when Prussia invaded Austria
Treaty of Paris (1763)
This treaty ended the Seven Years' War
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
Causes of the French Revolution
1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
Three Estates
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
Estates-General
This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
Tennis Court Oath
This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Women's March on Versailles
This was the march by the women of Paris to the home of Marie Antoinette in order to demand action for the ridiculous raise in the price of bread
Jacobins
This was the group of people in the National Assembly that met to discuss the political questions of the day
Girondists
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Committee of Public Safety
This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
Danton
One of the leaders of The Mountain
Robespierre
The main leader of The Mountain and the man who ruled France after the First Revolution
Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory
This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Battle of Austerlitz
This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
Peninsular War
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French rulers
Congress of Vienna
This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
Cottage industry
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
Enclosure movement
This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
Laissez-faire capitalism
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
Luddites
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
John Kay
Man who revolutionized the one-hand loom and increased the production done by one worker
James Hargreaves
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
Eli Whitney
This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
Henry Bessemer
This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
Malthus (On Population)
This man said that population would always grow faster than the food supply and the only hope of warding o war, famine, and disease was that young men and women had to limit the growth of population by marrying late
Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages)
This man stated that because of population growth, the wages would always sink to subsistence level
Bentham (Utilitarianism)
This man believed that the moral worth of an action is determined by its contribution to happiness as summed among all persons
On Liberty (John Stuart Mill)
This work advocated economic and moral freedom of individuals from the state. This work is enormously influential to politics today
Robert Owen
This man both helped to lead the first national union in England and advocated the use of children in factories
Saint-Simon
This man was one of the early and influential socialist thinkers who proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
Charles Talleyrand
This was the French supporter of Metternich's balance of power idea
Alexander I
This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
Louis XVIII
This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile
Mary Wollstonecraft
This was an English feminist who supported the women's revolution in France
Giuseppe Mazzini
This early Italian nationalist believed that doing labor for the principles of one's country is labor for humanity
Georg Hegel
This man believed that each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and a new synthesis
Raft of the Medusa (Géricault)
This Romantic work shows a crew shipwrecked
John Constable (The Haywain)
This man was a Romantic painter
William Wordsworth
Leader of English Romanticism who published works in the countryside
Lord Byron
This English poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free
Walter Scott
This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
This German Romantic poet influence Walter Scott
Victor Hugo
This was a Romantic writer who wrote prose and poetry
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
Wanderer in the Clouds (Friedrich)
This work of art shows the insignificance of the human and the supremacy of nature
Franz Liszt
This was a pianist in the Romanticism era that was a star in his day
Ludwig van Beethoven
This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
Conservatism
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
Romanticism
This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
Nationalism
This was the new feeling of pride for one's country after the Napoleonic era
Liberalism (Classical Liberalism)
This was the political idea in which the government did not intervene in the economy and liberty and equality were stressed
Varieties of Socialism
There were the early French socialists who believed in economic planning and argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job. There was also dialectic socialism in which the followers believed that eventually, the proletariat will battle against the bourgeois to create one single class
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Concert of Europe (Congress System)
This was the system set up by the Quadruple Alliance to meet periodically to talk about common issues
Holy Alliance
This was the alliance between Austria Prussia and Russia on the crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution.
Troppau Conference
This was the conference at which the Troppau Protocol was signed in which any country that underwent a revolution was no longer part of the European Alliance
Karlsbad Decrees
These decrees required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in the universities and newspapers an established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
Seditious Meetings Act
This act made it illegal to meet with a group of more than fifty people
Carbonari
These were groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
Phalansteries
These were the types of buildings designed by Charles Fourier for a utopian society
Dialectics
This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
Sturm und Drang
This was what the early German Romantics called themselves
Greek revolution
The Greeks revolted against the Ottomans for their independence, to which the Concert generally opposed to this
July Decrees
These decrees limited the voting rights of the wealthy and censored the press
Revolutions of 1830
The French Revolution of 1830 occurred because Louis XVIII only granted a small percentage of people the right to vote and Charles X attack of Algeria and as a result, he censored the press and limited the voting rights of the wealthy
Peterloo
This was the extremely lopsided victory by English army over the protestors as a result of the Corn Laws
Regulatory Legislation (Factory, Mines & 10 Hours Acts)
These acts all started to regulate and ameliorate the conditions of work in the factories and helped make the Industrial Revolution better and the living conditions in the urban areas better
Reform Bill of 1832
This bill gave representation to most people in England
Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
Charists
Their demand was universal male suffrage
Francois Guizot
This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
Louis Blanc
This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
Frederick William IV
This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
Lajos Kossuth
This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
This was the first French president as a result of the election after the Revolution of 1848
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
This socialist man believed that property is theft
Karl Marx
This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Revolutions of 1848
These revolutions occurred in 1)France, because of the depression and rising unemployment rates caused starvation in France in which they then overthrew the bourgeois monarchy 2)Austria, because the Hungarians rebelled against the Austrian Empire and were joined by the urban poor looking for employment, and 3) Prussia, because the artisans and factory workers joined with the middle-class liberals to rebel against the monarchy and eventually, Prussia became a constitutional monarchy
Potato Famine
This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year
National Workshops
This was the group that gave work to the unemployed
June Days
These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
"Crown from the gutter"
This was the expression used after the Revolutions of 1848 where Friedrich Wilhelm refused to just take the throne of Prussia
Proletariat
This was the working class in that was constantly battling against the bourgeois factory owners
Combination Acts
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
Theory of Class Struggle
This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Surplus Value
This is the value of the unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist for profit
Evolutionary Socialism
This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
Edwin Chadwick
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
Urban living conditions
These were awful in the 19th Century as a result of poor sewage treatment, water conditions and bad foundations for buildings
Georges Haussmann
This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris
Paris Reconstruction
This was planned by Georges Haussmann, who was assigned by Napoleon III, to provide employment, improved living conditions, and to show the glory of the French empire
Urban planning and public transit
This was the act of planning out a city and building it from the blueprints. This caused in increase in public transit that millions of people used a day instead of their own transportation or walking
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
Joseph Lister
This man promoted the idea of sterilizing medical equipment before operating
19th century class structure
Aristocracy > Middle Class (Upper > Middle > Lower) > Working Classes (Labor Aristocracy > Semiskilled > Unskilled)
Middle class values
The middle class frowned upon heavy drinking and the women were fond of fashion. Education was necessary and sexual purity was considered a virtue
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
This man developed the first cohesive theory of evolution after his studies of biology
Charles Darwin
This was the scientist who published the theory of evolution after his travels to the Galapagos Islands
Theory of Evolution
This theory stated that animals could evolve from other animals in order to adapt to their environments. This theory was not widely accepted for it could possibly account for humans which would defeat the whole purpose of creationism
Miasma Theory / Germ Theory
These were the theories of the spread of disease. The miasma theory said that disease was spread by a bad odor. The new germ theory developed by Louis Pasteur said that diseases were spread by bacteria called germs
Louis Pasteur
This was the man who began studying fermentation to develop a way to avoid spoilage through pasteurization by heating the beverage
Robert Koch
This was the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus and as a result h could create new vaccines for the disease
Labor aristocracy
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
Realism
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized