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AP Euro Midyear Review


The philosophy of the liberal arts that emphasized human beings and their achievements

"Universal Man"

This was the term given to those in the Renaissance who were able to excel in more than one subject matter

Johann Gutenberg

Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books


The ruler of Venice


The rule of a nation or state by a few people


This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope


This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire

Francesco Sforza

The Duke of Florence and the old ruler of the city-states of Italy

Cosmo deMedici

One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government

Lorenzo the Magnificent

This was an artistic patron that spent vast sums on family chapels, frescoes, religious panels and


First comedy writer that wrote 100 verses that described the realms of the next world


An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body


He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions


The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work: slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders


He was an architect who designed a hospital for orphans and foundlings set up by the silk-workers guild in Florence


One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works

Da Vinci

One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas


This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling

The Prince

A short political treatise about political power: how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests

Renaissance Popes

These were general title given to the popes that would convince the Renaissance artists to work for them in order to enhance the majesty of the churches


A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city


The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era

The Decameron

A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands

The Courtier

A treatise that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman


A Venetian man who created the style of mannerism in which artists sometimes distorted figures to express emotion and drama

Northern Humanism

This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions


A work that presents a revolutionary view of society and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere off the mainland of the New World. He created the name utopia as a good place which is no place


This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith


He was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and humanist. He is regarded as an avant-garde writer of fantasy and satire


This man wrote several plays and poems and is regarded as one of the best writers of all time


This man was a poet, playwright and novelist and wrote one of the best known novels ever (Don Quixote)

El Cid

This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table


This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.


The common crime of paying for holy offices for the position of power


This was the other common crime in which the members of the church would give positions to relatives

Sale of Indulgences

This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money

Pope Leo X

This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther

Banking Families

These were the major families in Europe that had the most power and control of the wealth in a state


This was one o the original men to challenge the church. His writings became "scriptures" for other reformers to follow.


A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy

Martin Luther

This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church

Ninety-five Theses

This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance

Johann Tetzel

This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully

Diet of Worms

This was the conference that Charles V called to bring Martin Luther to speak

Frederick Elector of Saxony

This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms

Peasants' War

This was the revolt that occurred in Germany where the peasants rebelled alongside the new Protestant thought. They were viciously quashed and the public appeal to the Reformation went substantially down

Peace of Augsburg

This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following

Ulrich Zwingli

This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy

Meeting at Marburg

This was the meeting that tried to settle the dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.

John Calvin

This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship

Institutes of the Christian Religion

This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin


One of the main points of Calvinism that said that God had already determined if you were damned or saved

John Knox

This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops


This was one of the reforms in England in which the leaders wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England eliminated

Henry VIII

This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife

Edward VI

During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country

Mary I

This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants

Elizabeth I

This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England


These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized

Council of Trent

This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants

Pope Paul III

This was the Pope that called the Council of Trent

Ignatius of Loyola

This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world


This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity

Francis Xavier

This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity

Index of Prohibited Literature

This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers

Spanish Inquisition

This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism

Gold Glory and God

This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians

Favorable balance of trade

This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials

Modern imperialism

This was the start of the building of foreign empires for trade and military advantages over other states

Prince Henry the Navigator

This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators


This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around

da Gama

This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade


This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India

Ferdinand and Isabella

This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition


This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.


This was the man who first said that the Americas were completely separate from Asia, thus the continent was named after him

Pope Alexander VI

This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America

Line of Demarcation

This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil and Spain the rest of South America


This was the name given to the Spanish explorers who would conquer the land they discovered and utilize the resources they found there for Spain


This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world

Northwest Passage

This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly

Commercial revolution

This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe


This was a German dynasty that often had conflicts with the Habsburgs that often involved other countries and papal troops

Francis I

This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots


These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties

War of the Three Henrys

This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)

Henry IV of France

This was the king who issued the Edict of Nantes

Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

Philip II of Spain

This was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies

Dutch Revolt

This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state

Thirty Years' War

This was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe

"Spanish Armada"

This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots

Peace of Westphalia

This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities

Edict of Nantes

This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots

Louis XIII

This French king appointed Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Richelieu

This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy

Louis XIV

This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France

Cardinal Mazarin

This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies

Jean Bodin

This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice

Thomas Hobbes

This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war

War of Spanish Succession

This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V

Peace of Utrecht

This was the treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession

The Stuarts

This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I

English Civil War

This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished

Roundheads and Cavaliers

These were the two sides of the English civil war. The Roundheads were the Puritan supporters of the Parliament and the Cavaliers were the supporters of Charles I

Oliver Cromwell

This was the dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. His death provided the military government collapse of England

Rump Parliament

This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers

The Commonwealth of England

This was the name that England took on after the civil war and the kingship was abolished

The Protectorate

This was the name of the military dictatorship that England took on during the reign of Oliver Cromwell

The Restoration

This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England

Charles II

This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king

Test Act of 1673

This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights

Habeas Corpus Act

This was act in which any people unlawfully detained could be prosecuted

Whigs and Tories

These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was

James II

This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government

Glorious Revolution

This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed

Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)

This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown

William and Mary

These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament

House of Orange

This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution


This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands


This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary

Maria Theresa

This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs

Pragmatic Sanction

This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler

Joseph II

This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom


This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia

Frederick William (The Great Elector)

This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.

Frederick the Great

This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler


This was the ruling class of Russia after the Cossack Rebellion

Peter the Great

This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe

Catherine the Great

This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia

Partition of Poland

This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria


This was the man who first theorized that the celestial bodies all revolved around a fixed sun


This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun


This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon


This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science


This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method


This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds: a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method


This was the scientist who began to study anatomy in depth. He is referred as the father of anatomy


This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow


This was the physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently

Modern liberalism

This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism

Effects of the Scientific Revolution

This involved the beginning of using reason to solve problems in the community by using inductive and deductive reasoning


These were the French philosophers


These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines


This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues

Philosophy of the Enlightenment

This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life

Role of reason

The Enlightenment thinkers used reason to deduct conclusions about everyday life

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