49 terms

# Unit 2: Population

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Demography
The study of patterns and rates of population change, including birth and death rates, migration trends, and evolving population distribution patterns.
census
a periodic and official count of a country's population
Population Density
a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Arithmetic Population Density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the area unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit
Physiologic Population Density
The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Population Composition
structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties, education
Age-sex Pyramid
Graphic representation (profile) of a population showing the percentages of the total population by age and sex, normally in five-year groups.
Crude Birth Rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Infant Mortality
the death rate during the first year of life
Total Fertility rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
Demographic Transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Doubling Time
the time required for a population to double in size
Exponential Growth
cumulative or compound growth of a population over a given time period
Linear Growth
Growth in which a quantity increases by some fixed amount during each unit of time.
Natural Increase
population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements
Population Explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
Stationary Population Level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
Absolute Direction
the EXACT way or direction to get to something (north,south,east,west)
Relative Direction
direction based on a person's perception of places
Absolute Distance
the physical distance between two points usually measured in miles or kilometers
relative distance
distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.
Push Factors
a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region
Pull Factor
Factor that induces people to move to a new location.
Activity space
the space within which daily activity occurs
Cyclic Movement
movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
movement among a definite set of places
Seasonal Movement
Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.
Migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Emigration
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
Forced Migration
human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate
Voluntary Migration
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
Internal Migration
human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US`
External Migration
migration across an international border
Interregional Migration
movement from one region of a country to another
Step Migration
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Counter Migration
migration back to an original area in which people had left (e.g., migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)
Intervening Opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Distance-decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Refugee
a person who has to leave his or her country to find safety.
Temporary Refugees
refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement
Permanent Refugee
Refugee who does not return to their country of origin and is given permanent residence status in the new country
International Refugee
Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries duting their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country.
Intranational Refugee
those who have abandoned their homes but not their country
Immigration Laws
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
Eugenic population policy
government policy designed to favor one race over another
Expansive population policy
government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth
Restrictive population policy
Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Negative population growth
the actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases