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If a molecule has more twists, the strands coil around each other this is called
If a molecule has fewer twists, the strands coil around each other this is called
Examples of Non-homologous recombination
recombinant DNA, DNA repair, antibody formation, transposition
Histone proteins allows
condensing of DNA, regulation of the rate at which DNA is used for gene expression
resulting charge from epigentic changes cause what
less interaction between DNA(-charged) histone(now N), this opens up chromatin
DNA methyltransferase transfers..
a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine to the cytosines in CpG combinations
What binds and hold the separated strands made by helicase apart
single stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB)
Why is an RNA primer need for DNA polymerase?
Because D polymerase requires a free hydroxyl group to start
Telomerase uses what as a template and therefore can be considered a..
RNA molecule as template, a type of Reverse transcriptase
Cytosine dimers are especially dangerous because they often cause the incoporation of what
adenine instead of guanine
Cell Cycle checkpoints and when they occur
G1, G2, M, they all occur right after their phase, eg G1 occurs after G1 has been completed not before
Cyclin-dependent kinases induce cell cycle progression via
phosphoylation of the retinoblastoma protein
The retinoblastoma protein's action
inhibits cell cycle by inhibiting transcription factors of the E2F family, inhibited by phosphorylation
_______ are proteins in the extracellular space that determine cell survival and proliferation after bind to their receptor on the surface of a target cell
HPV proteins E6 and E7 inhibit
p53 and Rb to induce cell proliferation, both of which are tumor supression genes
Cancer stem cell model says
only the cancer stem cells have the ability to undergo multiple cell divisions, hierarchically organized
Transcription factors that regulate the expression of a gene bind...
to its promoter which is located upstream (to the 5' end) of the coding strand
RNA polymerase forms a phosphodiester bond where
between the 3' OH-group of the last nucleotide and the innermost phospho atom of the new nucleoside triphosphate
one precursor mRNA can lead to different mature mRNA molecules, which causes different proteins to form
What regress the translation from the mRNAs and redirect the mRNAs either back for translation or to P-bodies for degradation
general transcription factors plus RNA polymerase II is called what
transcription initiation complex
Other Transcription factors determine what
which gene and when the trasncription initiation complex is formed
___are a class of transcription factors that are activated by steroid and thyroid hormones
CpG regions being methylated causes what
Methyl-CpG- binding proteins to bind to them and thus the transcription complex can longer be formed
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