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the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations


migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)


population count

Forced migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.

Population density

number of individuals per unit area

Arithmetic population density

the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area

Physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

Population composition

structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties, education

Age-sex pyramid

Pyramid that shows age under male or female

Crude birth rate

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

Crude death rate

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

Voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

Internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

External migration

migration across an international border

Infant mortality

the death rate during the first year of life

Total fertility rate

The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life

Demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

Doubling time

the time required for a population to double in size

Interregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

Exponential growth

growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

Step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

Linear growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

Counter migration

the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated

Natural increase

Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate

Population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

Stationary population level

the level at which a national population ceases to grow

Absolute direction

a compass direction such as north or south

Relative direction

direction based on a person's perception of places

Absolute distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

Relative distance

distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.

Push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

Pull factors

a factor that draws or attracts people to another location

Activity space

the space within which daily activity occurs

Cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally


movement among a definite set of places

Seasonal movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.


the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

Intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

Distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.


an exile who flees for safety

Temporary refugees

refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement

Permanent refugees

person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home

International refugees

refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation

Intranational refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.

Immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

Eugenic population policy

government policy designed to favor one race over another

Expansive population policy

government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth

Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

Negative population growth

the actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases

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