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49 terms

Unit 1: Geography, its nature and perspectives

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Demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
Emigration
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
Cencus
population count
Forced migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Population density
number of individuals per unit area
Arithmetic population density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area
Physiologic population density
The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Population composition
structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties, education
Age-sex pyramid
Pyramid that shows age under male or female
Crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude death rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Voluntary migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Internal migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
External migration
migration across an international border
Infant mortality
the death rate during the first year of life
Total fertility rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
Demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size
Interregional migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Step migration
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Linear growth
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
Counter migration
the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
Natural increase
Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate
Population explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
Stationary population level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
Absolute direction
a compass direction such as north or south
Relative direction
direction based on a person's perception of places
Absolute distance
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
Relative distance
distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.
Push factors
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
Pull factors
a factor that draws or attracts people to another location
Activity space
the space within which daily activity occurs
Cyclic movement
movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
Nomadism
movement among a definite set of places
Seasonal movement
Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.
Migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Intervening opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Refugee
an exile who flees for safety
Temporary refugees
refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement
Permanent refugees
person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home
International refugees
refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation
Intranational refugees
Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.
Immigration laws
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
Eugenic population policy
government policy designed to favor one race over another
Expansive population policy
government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth
Restrictive population policy
Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Negative population growth
the actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases