Economics was at issue. Depressions during the 1880s and 1890s fell hard on farmers in the Midwest and parts of the South. The prices paid to farmers for their commodities had been falling since the Civil War, making it hard to pay their bills. The two major parties were straddling the issue, which led to the formation of parties of economic protest-the Greenbackers and the Populists. Populists tended to be fundamentalist Protestants; urban voters were Catholic. In 1896 Bryan got the Democratic nomination for president and made the party adopt a Populist platform. Anti-Bryan democrats deserted the party and voted for the republican, McKinley. The Republicans stood for industry, business, hard money, protective tariffs, and urban interests. The Democrats were for farmers, small towns, low tariffs, and rural interests. The Republicans won. The old split between North and South was somewhat replaced by East and West, city and farm split. It was not only an economic cleavage, Republicans had been able to appeal to Catholics and Lutherans, who disliked fundamentalism and its hostility toward liquor and immigrants. Beginning in 1972, the Democrats developed an elaborate set of rules designed to weaken the control over delegates by local party leaders and to increase the proportion of women, young people, blacks, and Native Americans attending the convention. These rules were first drafted by a party commission chaired by Senator George McGovern (who later used these new procedures to get a successful bid for the Democratic presidential nomination). In 1974 they were revised by another commission, chaired by Barbara Mikulski. After the 1976 election, a third commission, chaired by Morley Winograd, produced another revision of the rules, which took place in 1980. A fourth commission, chaired by NC governor James B. Hunt, recommended in 1981 another set of rules, which became effective with the 1984 convention.