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active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

concentration gradient

the difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance


process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

dynamic equilibrium

result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration


process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane


process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell

facilitated diffusion

pathway provided by transport proteins that helps certain molecules pass through a membrane


when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes


when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes


preventing especially liquids to pass or diffuse through


of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes

lipid bilayer

double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes


diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell


allowing (especially liquids) to pass or diffuse through


process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell


process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid

selectively permeable membrane

membrane that allows some substances to pass more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether


substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution


mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed


a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

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