GCSE Geography AQA A: Tourism
Terms in this set (41)
Tourism that focuses on protecting the environment and the local way of life.
Someone who is visiting a different location and is staying there for more than one night.
All of the activities tourists take part in and the services that support them, e.g. hotels, taxi drivers, ice-cream sellers.
Types of holidays
Gap year, honeymoon, fishing, package holidays.
Environments that favour tourism
Jamaica, the Alps and Shanghai.
Is a coastal area which provides water sports, sunbathing and exotic culture and foods.
Is a mountainous region in the north with cities and has a coastal area mostly in the south, all which provides shopping, sunbathing, snow sports, different language and cuisine.
Is a city with shopping, a different language and cuisine.
Large numbers of people that visit the same place at the same time.
Positive effects of tourism
Jobs, local and national income, multiplier effect, better infrastructure, reduces racial tension, interdependence and monuments conserved.
Negative effects of tourism
Footpath erosion, litter, noise and light pollution, leakage, crime, increased house prices, food miles, soil degradation and increased congestion on small roads.
Reasons for global growth in tourism
1. Cheaper flights, cheaper holidays and higher wages earned by both genders= higher disposable income. 2. More stressful lifestyle= more families want to 'escape'. 3. Modes of transport, like planes, are faster, can carry more people and the accessibility is easier~ budget airlines cram as may people as possible into one flight, but are very cheap. 4. Multiplier effect (snowball effect) is the growth of resorts (Benidorm) where more attractions come because of tourism and more types of holidays are available. 5. Educational value and historical aspects attract tourists. 6. Political stability= more countries safer to visit. 7. More easier to book holidays online, but puts travel companies out of business.
Infrastructure for tourism
Support structures and services for visitors such as airports, hotels, electricity, tour agencies.
Spin-off from one business growing, allowing other businesses to grow as well.
Entrusted to look after and manage places and areas.
Place where wildlife and landscape are easily damaged by outsiders, often because it is a struggle for life to survive there.
More active tourism, with more risk, often off the beaten track, in more unusual destinations.
Advantages, benefits, things that help economies and people.
Difficult places for humans to live in or visit, often due to hostile climate, sometimes due to inaccessible terrain.
Area set aside to protect landscapes and habitats, and managed to stop visitor damage.
Disadvantages, costs, things that damage the environment or badly affect the economy and people.
Growth of activities working with the environment for a long future, looking after the needs of future generations.
Measures taken to preserve what is there, to maintain landscapes and ecosystems, to look after historic buildings. Stewardship but on a smaller, more manageable scale.
Something unrelated to tourism, which affects tourist numbers, such as the economy, exchange rates, wars and terrorism.
Limiting the use of a finite resource so some is left for future generations, looking after the environment (usually on a larger scale).
Conflicts of interest in a National Park
1. Mountain rescue disturbed and pressured by unprepared walkers e.g. Hellvelyn. 2. Local village shops and businesses are put out of business because they don't earn enough money from the locals, so they start up tourist-friendly businesses such as gift shops and hotels. 3. Limited parking spaces leads tot he locals not being able to park in their own villages/towns.- Leads to congested roads and people parking in fields or private property. 4. Footpath erosion caused by sightseers and hikers cost the county council millions and is a recurring problem. 5. Litter left by tourists can harm the wildlife and disturbs the scenery.
External factors that influence tourism
Negative- Fear of terrorism, world recession causing a drop numbers as people cannot afford to travel, volcanic ash from Iceland meant no planes landed for a week.
Positive- Credit positive comments such as variations in the exchange rate, reduction of political barriers.
Weather and advertising is NOT and external factor.
Butler's life cycle of a resort
This model tells us that any tourist resort starts on a small scale, develops into something more significant, then either goes into decline or makes changes to maintain its attractions. There are six stages.
A small number of tourists independently explore a new location, either for personal adventure or to experience new cultures. Economic, environmental and social impacts are virtually nil.
As acceptance by the locals increases then the destination becomes more popular. Travel and accommodation facilities are improved. Local people become more involved in the promotion of the area.
Local people become more involved in promotion, attracting more visitors and the area becomes established as a tourist destination, with a defined market. In developing countries the control passes from local to rich company management. Package holidays begin.
Tourism is an important economic and social activity, adversely affecting 'traditional' economies and lifestyles. Agricultural land is given over to resort building, without any benefit in increased wealth in the local community. Resentment occurs. Numbers of tourists continue to rise but rate of increase slows down.
Increased local opposition to tourism, plus a growing awareness of social, economic and environmental problems, prevents further growth. Decrease in tourist visits, suggesting original culture and physical attractions are lost.
(6) Rejuvenation (or decline)
A secondary growth spurt brought about by a new impetus. Losses of original attractions are compensated for by new (man-made) facilities. 'New' tourists may be of different socio-economic groups or different age groups to the original input.
An example of a place where the Butler's model can be used.
1. Before tourism (exploration)
Before tourism became big in Benidorm, pre-1950, it was a small fishing village with about 3 000 inhabitants. Their main subject in fishing was tuna and their economy slowly became stronger as the local agriculture improved.
2. 1950 (involvement)
In 1950 the Council promoted tourism in Benidorm to increase the local income. Luckily, the major wanted to prevent cramped development, so he made sure that all hotels had their own space for leisure. However, because tourism was now the town's main subject, there was a big loss of income in the fishing business, so in 1952 the biggest tuna fishery was closed. In 1959, four hotels were opened in response to the upcoming tourist market.
3. 1960 (development)
In 1963, the second Urban General Development Plan was launched which allowed skyscrapers and a low habitat density in the town. The number of inhabitants increased from 5 000 to 10 000 due to the increase of tourists. The main attractions and reason for growth in Benidorm was because of the climate consisting of low precipitation levels and high temperatures with approximately 29°C and 27mm of precipitation in July. English tourists were attracted because of the difference in climate and that it was an English speaking environment.
4. 1970 (consolidation)
From 1960-1980 over 80 hotels were built in Benidorm and the number of inhabitants had increased massively to 23 000 in 1975, but the rate of increase had slowed down. To make transport to Benidorm quicker and easier, the motorway between Alicante airport and Benidorm was opened in 1975.
5. 1980 (stagnation)
In 1980 tourists such as pensioners from Europe and Spain came to Benidorm out of season, i.e. winter, where the temperatures are milder with 15°C and 31mm of precipitation ins January. From 1987, all of the beaches were promoted as they were awarded the Blue Flag for quality and cleanliness. However attractive this made Benidorm seem, in the 1980's it was known for its drunk, rude English tourists which caused crime and noise. The police overcame this as they became more aware of the problems the drunk tourists made. Although there was an audience out of season, 20% of all hotels in Benidorm were closed in winter as not enough tourists were attracted to the mild winters, showing that Benidorm's main attraction was the weather.
6. 2000 (rejuvenation)
The elderly have now become part of the main target audience as they have reported that their health has improved with the better standard of living in Benidorm compared to their homes, leading them to buying homes, holiday homes and flats in Benidorm. In response to the popularity to the English and German tourists, Benidorm started focusing more on attracting Russian tourists in the upcoming Russian market, opening and widening their target audience. Benidorm has seen to be a success in rejuvenating itself since the decline in 1980. In 2012, there were 80 000 inhabitants and 1 700 000 visitors per year to Benidorm.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Geography AQA Human - Tourism
Geography: Tourism AQA GCSE
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
GCSE AQA French- La pollution and Planète en danger
GCSE AQA German- City, town and village r-end.
GCSE AQA German vocab- The Environment
GCSE AQA German vocab- Environment
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AQA GCSE Geography (Human) - Tourism
AQA GCSE Geography - water on land
Geography AQA GCSE A Restless Earth
Geography AQA - Population Change