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70 terms

criminology exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
theory
made up of clearly stated propositions that suggest relationships, often of casual sort, between events and things under study or attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events
concept
abstract mental image. means something different to everyone (example: poverty)
general theory
tries to explain all/most forms of crime through a single overarching approach
unicasual theory
approaches that suggest a single identifiable source for all serious deviant and criminal behavior
integrated theory
tries to explain crime by merging concepts from different sources
experimental criminology
uses social scientific techniques to test the accuracy of theories about crime
social policy
includes government, initiatives, programs, plans to address problems in society
incidence of crime
not always what is perceived because concern about crime is not always related to actual incidence of crime
elements of theory
concepts, conceptualization, propositions, theoretical rationale, assumptions, scope&boundaries, and policy implications
conceptualization
definition of concepts
theoretical rationale
explanation of theory
scope&boundaries
what type/group defined (who or what the theory applies to)
variables
measurement involved
operationalization
define variable
wallace's wheel of science
theory,hypothesis,observations,empirical generalizations
research
the use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search for knowledge
stages in research
problem identification, development of research design, choice of data collection techniques, and review of findings
internal validity
the certainty that experimental interventions did indeed cause the changes observed in the study group (the variables YOU created)
external validity
the ability to generalize research findings to other settings in society
validity
asks "are you measuring what you want to measure?"
reliability
repeating your study and getting the same result
threats to internal validity
history, maturation,testing,differential selection, and experimental morality
threats to external validity
reactive effects of testings, self selections, reactive effects of experiment, multiple treatment effects
hawthorne study
example off reactive effects of the experiment
participant observation
way of data collection involving undercover work
self-reports
way of data collecting but can be a problem because people lie
types of data/statistics/reports
descriptive or inferential
descriptive statistics
describing in detail a group
inferential statistics
taking details/results and making inferences/applying them to society/population
types of research
quantitative and qualitative
quantitative
research that focuses on numbers (mathematics/reports)
qualitative
research that focuses on what you see in the real world, very descriptive, inferences
institutional review board
how we insure that ethics are in place
ehtics/values
privacy, confidentiality (you know who it is but cant reveal it) or anonymous (you have no idea who), informed consent, not putting subjects at risk,
statute
a formal written enactment of legislative body
criminologist
one who is trained in the field of criminology; also one who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior
criminalist
a specialist in the collections and examinations of the physical evidence of crime
criminology
an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control
criminal justice
the scientific study of crime, the criminal law, and components of the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and corrections. focus on control of law-breaking
political perspective
crime is defined as:the result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups and are then used to label selected undesirable forms of behavior as illegal
sociological perspective
crime is defined as: an antisocial act of such a nature that its repression is necessary or is supposed to be necessary to the preservation of the existing system of society
Deviant behavior
any activity that violates social norms
Consensus
Laws are enacted to criminalize given forms of behavior when agreed upon by members of society
Pluralist
Behaviors typically criminalized through a political process, after debate over appropriate course of action
Criminal Justice Professionals
do the day-to-day work of the criminal justice system
socially relative
Social events are interpreted differently according to the cultural experiences and personal interests of the initiator, observer, or recipient of the behavior
Crime results from the coming together of
inputs provided by the offender, the victim, the criminal justice system, and society
Integrative Approach to Crime
Attempt to identify and understand multiple causes of crime
Evidence-based criminology
Founded upon the experimental method
Emphasizes randomized controlled experiments
"Evidence" refers to scientific findings
John Laub's three eras
Golden Age of Research (1900-1930)
Golden Age of Theory (1930-1960)
Empirical testing of dominant theories (1960-2000)
Scientific criminology involves
The systematic collection of related facts
An emphasis on the scientific method
General laws, a field for experimentation or observation, control of academic discourse
Acceptance into the scientific tradition
Emphasis on a worthwhile subject
Research design
The logic and structure inherent in any particular approach to data gathering
Guide to systematic collection of data
Controlled experiments
Attempt to hold conditions other than the experimental intervention constant
Quasi-experiments
Give the researcher control over the "when and to whom" of measurement (but not exposure)
Descriptive statistics
describe, summarize, highlight relationships within data
applied research
research based on scientific inquiry that is designed and carried out with practical applications in mind
pure research
research undertaken simpl for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge
primary research
research characterized by original and direct investigation
secondary research
research based on new evaluations of existing info that has been collected by other researchers
policy
things you can do to prevent (in elements of theory)
Theoretical Criminology
Subfield of general criminology
Primarily found in colleges and universities
Posits explanations for criminal behavior
propositions
way that concepts are connected (x leads to y) in elements of theory
ways to collect data
surveys, case studies, participant observation, self-reports, and secondary analysis
secondary analysis
data that has already been collected being looked at again
hypothesis
An explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation
Something that is taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigations
spiritual explanations of crime (demonic perspective)
deviant behavior is a result of temptation (being tempted to do a deviant act [by demon or something]) that leaves you with a choice to do it or not; or a result of possession (being possessed by a demon or something) that you have no choice over
punishment in spiritual explanations of crime
usually in public
"lex talions" an eye for an eye
deterrence
criminality
a behavioral predisposition that disproportionately favors criminal activity
differential selection
built-in biases that result when more than one group of subjects are involved in a study and when the groups being tested are initially somehow different
randomization
the process whereby individuals are assigned to study groups without biases or differences resulting from selection