This is from Gottfredson & Hirschi's work on self-control theory; they propose that individuals with low self-control are most likely to engage in crime.
In this reading, crime is introduced as:
Providing immediate gratification.
Having few or meager long-term benefits.
Requiring little skill or planning.
Resulting in pain or discomfort for victims.
"...people who lack self-control will tend to be impulsive, insensitive, physical, risk-taking, short-sighted, and non-verbal," and these are the individuals likely to engage in crime and analogous acts.
In this perspective, offenders are believed to:
be versatile—commit a wide variety of criminal acts without specialization.
engage in analogous behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and other forms of risk-taking.
be characterized by the stability of individual differences over a long period of time.
This theory holds that it is not possible to predict the specific forms of deviant behavior in which an individual will engage.
Low self-control originates from ineffective child-rearing, as when parents fail to nurture, discipline, or train their child.
Individual differences may have an impact on the prospects for effective socialization.
In order for a child to develop self-control, someone must:
Monitor their behavior.
Recognize deviant behavior.
Punish the deviant behavior.
This article examines the role played by Chinese culture in shaming and reintegrating criminals, and considers the insights gained from this study relative to both labeling theory and reintegrative shaming theory.
Two relevant theories:
Labeling Theory (LS-Becker)
Reintegrative Shaming Theory (RS-Braithwaite): Shaming carries a risk of alienating the first-time offender if it is not combined with positive reintegrative efforts; the act should be stigmatized, but not the offender.
In China, a great deal of weight is placed on labeling in order to prevent and control delinquency.
The impact of shaming in China may be different relative to Western nations, as China is relatively communitarian.
Because of their sense of interdependence, the Chinese hold in high esteem those who make progress in accepting social norms.
Largely, shame in China is reintegrative; while there is a risk of stigmatization, Chinese culture serves to temper this risk.
The family and other social units play an active role in responding to crime and delinquency; there is mass involvement in reforming delinquents.
The Chinese approach is similar to reintegrative shaming.
Offenders are first shamed for their offenses;
then they are shown concern and love, accompanied by attempts to solve their practical problems.
This two-stage approach both expresses community disapproval and symbolizes reacceptance of offenders while assisting with reintegration.
The heavy emphasis on shaming, combined with the relative success of the system, provide more support for RS than LT.