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Benjamin Rush

physician and Revolutionary American leader

Noah Webster

American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.

Quids & Yazoo Case

A. Jefferson's opponents, led by his cousin, John Randolph ("Quids"), accused Jefferson of
complicity in controversy following Georgia's cession of western lands to federal gov't.

Northern Confederacy

schemed by Burr and Wikinson; Federalist; then decided to create western confederacy; Wilkinson chickened out when Washington denounced

Essex Junto

A group of extreme Federalists who wanted to secede from the U.S. and form a Northern Confederacy because they thought northern states would have less power after the Louisiana Purchase

Federalist Papers

a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

XYZ Affair

incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues

Embargo Act of 1807

Law that forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports to British ships

Whiskey Rebellion

insurrection in southwestern Pennsylvania over hamilton tax, subdued by washington militia

Jay's Treaty

1794- British and us agreed- British trade w/ Americans and the british leave northwest territory

Pinckney's Treaty

agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans

Judiciary Act

a 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation

Report on Public Credit

proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank

Report on Manufactures

Hamiltonian plan for tariffs, encouragement of industrialization

Judith Sargent Murray

leading essayist in late 18th century,wrote in 1779 that women's minds were as good as men and they deserved to be educated, defended Mary Wollstonecraft

Second Great Awakening

religious waves of spiritual fervor which, beginning in 1800, resulted in reorganizing churches, reform, abolitionism and temperance movements

Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

British warship fired on US warship off Virginia's coast, killing three Americans; resulted in high anti-British sentiment (1807)

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Alien and Sedition Acts

acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government

Rush-Bagot Agreement

an agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States

Missouri Compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories

Macon's Bill No.2

opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work

Battle of New Orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.


a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)

Adams-Onis Treaty

Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory

Panic of 1818

Economic Depression, bank faliures, falling land prices and foreclosures, weakened optimism from Era of Good Feelings

Tariff of 1816

This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Tariff of Abominations

The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.

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