chp 17-18

hydrologic cycle
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Terms in this set (62)
oceans hold _____ of all liquid water on the earth while covering 71% of earths surface97%___ of the earths biomass is found in the oceans90%ocean currents moderatethe climate and redistributing warm and cold water around the earth._____ of the worlds water is classified as fresh2.4%; and of the 2.4%, 87% is tied up in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields.groundwater is the ___ largest reservoir of fresh watersecondinfiltrationprecipitation that does not evaporate into air or runoff over the surface, percolates through the soil and into fractures and permeable rockszone of aerationupper soil layers the hold both air and waterzone of saturationlower soil layers where all spaces are filled with waterwater tabletop of zone of saturationaquifersporous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water tableartesianpressurized aquifer intersects that surface (water flows without pumping)recharge zonesarea where water infiltrates into an aquifer; recharge rate is often very slowprecipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate into the groundruns off the surface back towards the seasdischargethe amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time; best measure of water volume carried by a riverpondsare generally considered small bodies of water shallow enough for rooted plants to grow over most of the bottom.lakesare inland depressions that hold standing fresh water year-round with depths ranging from a few meters to >1500 metersreservoirsare a large natural or artificial lakes used as a source of water supplyboth ponds and lakes will eventuallyfill with sediment or be emptied by an outlet streamwetlands play a vital role in thehydrologic cyclewetlands cause disturbances whichreduces natural water absorbing capacity, resulting in floods and erosion in wet periods, and less water flow the rest of the yearthe atmosphere contains _____ of the total water supply< .001%the atmosphere has the most rapid turnover rate for water10 day averagewater vapor provides mechanismsfor distributing fresh water over landmasses and replenishing terrestrial reservoirsrenewable water suppliesmade up of surface runoff infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers; about 2/3rd of water carried in rivers and streams annually occurs in seasonal floods too large or violent to be stored effectively for human use.stable runoff is thedependable, renewable, year- round supply of surface waterthe United Nations considers 264,000 gallons per person per year to be theminimum necessary to meet human needswater stressoccurs when human and ecosystem needs exceed the renewable water supplies, resulting in competitionpollutionany physical biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired usespoint sourcesdischarge pollution from specific locations ex factories power plants sewage pipesnon point sourcesscattered or diffuse, having no specific location of discharge ex agricultural fields, feedlots, gold courses, residential construction sitesatmospheric depositioncontaminants carried by air currents and precipitated into watersheds or directly onto surfaces water as rain, snow or dry particleshow much herbicide is estimated to have accumulated in the Great Lakes?600,000 kgcontaminants can also evaporate from lake and ___________redeposit everywherein the pat 12 years __________ metric tons of ________ have disappeared from lakes26,000; PCBstypes and effects of water pollutioninfectious agents (pathogenic organisms) - main source is improper treatment of human waste; animal waster from feedlots and fields is also important source780 million lack access toclean drinking watercoliform bacteriaintestinal bacteria, used to detect water contamination by animal wastesamount of do is a good indicator ofwater quality and kinds of life it will supportwater is unsafe of human contact if > or equal to _________________ of coliform bacteria per 100 ml water200 colonieswater with an oxygen content ______________ will support desirable aquatic life> 6 ppmwater with _______ DO will support mainly detritivores and decomposers< 2 ppmoxygen is added to water by?diffusion from wind and waves and photosynthesis from green plants, algae, and Cyanobacteriaoxygen is removed from water byrespiration and oxygen consuming processesorganic water like ___________________________ is rich in nutrients especially N and Psewage, paper pulp, or food wastebiochemical oxygen demandamount of dissolved oxygen consumed by aquatic microorganisms. used as a test for organic waster contamination from sewage, paper pulp, and food wasterthe lower the BOD thecleaner the water sourcedissolved oxygen contentmeasure of dissolved oxygen in the watereffects of oxygen demanding wastes on rivers depend onvolume, flows and temperature of river wateroligotrophicbodies of water that have clear water and low biological productivityeutrophicbodies of water that are rich in organisms and organic materialeutrophicationprocess of increasing nutrient levels and biological productivity, a normal part of successional change in most lakescultural eutrophicationincrease inn biological productivity caused by human activities