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92 terms

zanfini first rhetoical terms quiz

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Abstract Diction
words that describe concepts rather than concrete images
Ad Hominem Fallacy
a fallacy of logic in which a person's character or motive is attacked instead of their argument
Ad Populum Fallacy
popular appeal, or appeal to the majority
Allegory
an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities in which the author intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of the story
Alliteration
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another
Allusion
a brief or indirect reference to a person, place, passage, or event in a work of literature that is well known
Ambiguity
the expression of an idea in such a way that more than one meaning is suggested
Anadiplosis
the repetition of the last word of one clause in the beginning of the next
Analogy
a comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained in terms of more simple
Anaphora
the repetition of introductory words or phrases for effect
Anastrophe
departure from normal word order for the sake of emphasis. normal syntax is violated
Anecdote
a short entertaining account of something happening, frequently personal or biographical used to bring humor or to illustrate a particular characteristic or trait
Antithesis
opposition or contrast emphasized by parallel structure
Antecednet
the word for which a pronoun stands
Aphorism
a brief saying embodying a moral
Apostrophe
a strategy in which an absent person, inanimate object, or abstract being is addressed directly
Appeal to authority/ expert testimony
citation of information from people recognized for their special knowledge of a subject for the purpose of strengthening an argument
Assonance
repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants
Asyndeton
commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words
Bandwagon
either saying that supporting a specific cause/stance would result in the rejection of peeers or using the popular support of a cause/stance to persuade other to support it as well
Begging the Question
fallacy of logical argument that assumes the reader will automatically accept in assertion without proper support
Cause and Effect
examination of the causes and/or effects of a situation or phenomenon
Chiasmus
a syntactical structure by which the order of the terms in the first of two parallel clauses is reversed in the second
Circular Logic/Thinking/Reasoning
a fallacy which involves assrtions endlessly without real support
Colloquial Diction
words or phrases used in everyday conversation and informal writing which is usually inappropriate in formal writning
Concrete Diction
words that describe specific, observable things, people, or things rather than ideas or qualities
Connotation
implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association with the reader's mind
Consonance
repetiton of identitical consonant sounds within two or more words close in proximity
Convoluted sentences
long, complicated sentences that are often hard to follow because they are wordy and too many ideas are rolled together
Denotation
the literal or obvious meaning of a word
Ellipsis
any omitted part of speech that is easily understood in context
Epanalepsis
the repetition of the first word of one clause at the of the clause
Epigram
a brief, clever, and usually memorable statement
Epistrophe
the repetition of the same word or groups of words at the ends of phrases, clauses, or sentences
Ethos
appealing to ethics
Euphemism
the use of a word or phrase that is less direct, but that is also less distatesteful or offensive than another
False Casualitiy
a fallacy of concluding that an event is cause by another event simply because it follow sit
False Dilemma
a fallacy of logical argument which is committed when too few of the available alternatives are considered, and all but one are deemed impossible
Figurative Language
how authors use literal meanings to suggest nonliteral meanings
Foreshadowing
the use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs later in the work
Freight-Train Sentences
a sentence consiting of three or more very short independent clauses joined by conjuctions
Hyperbole
deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis
Idioms
an expression i n the usage of a language that has a meaning that cannot be derived from the conjoined literal meanings of the seperate elements
Interrogative sentences
type of sentence structure used chiefly for asking questions
Irony
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Juxtaposition
type of zeugma - putting together two contrasting elments that are so unlike that the effect is suprising, witty, or even startling
Maxim
a self-evident or universally recognized truth
Lgos
appealing to reason in a measured, logical way
Metaphor
a figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another by being spoken of as thought it were that thing
Metonymny
Figure of speech that replaces the name of an object, person, or idea with something with which its is associated
No sequitur
Statement that does not follow logically form what it preceded
Onomatopoeia
the use of words that sound like what they mean
Overgeneralization
a fallacy in which the author draw too general of a conclusion from the presented information or arguments
Oversimplification
a fallacy in which the author obscure s or denies the complexity of the issues in an argument
Oxymoron
figure of speech in which contadictory terms or ideas are combined
Pacing
where a passage speeds up or slows down
Parable
a short story form which a lesson may be drawn
Paradox
a statement which seems self contradictory, but which may be true in fact
Parallelism
any structure which brings together parallel elements to show the ideas in parts of sentences are of equal importance
Parody
in contemporary usage, parody is a form of satire that imitates another work of art in order to ridicule it
Pathos
Appealing to the emotions
Pedantic
A term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing
Periodic Sentence Structure
simple sentence with details added to the beginning or interpreting the simple sentence
Personification
the attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or inanimate object
Piling
listing in quick succession
polysyndenton
a sentence which uses and or another conjunction to seperat the items in series
Predicate
the verb and any of its objects or complements in a clause
Prepositional Phrase
consists of a preposition and its complement
Pun
a play upon words based on the multiple meanings of words
Red Herring
when an author raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue
Reductio Ad Absurdrum
"to reduce to the absurd" technique useful for creating a comic effect ans is also an argumentative technique
Rhetorical Question
question asked for rhetorical effect or to emphasize a point, no answer being expected
Sarcasm
harsh, caustic personal remarks to or about someone; less subtle than irony
Satire
use of ridicule, sarcasm, irony, etc. to expose vices, abuses, etc.
Simile
Figure of speech that uses like or as, or as if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects, actions, or qualities.
Slippery Slope
a fallacy in which a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitably of the event in question
Snob Appeal
Qualities that seem to substantiate social or intellectual pretensions
Spatial Ordering
an organizational strategy where information is organized using spatial cues such as top to bottom, etc.
Stereotype
character who represents a trait that is usually attributed to a particular social or racial group and who lacks individuality
Strawman
when an author argues against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak. diverts attention from real issues
Stream of Consciousness
like a first person narrator, but placing the reader inside the characters head
Syllepsis
when a single word that governs or modifies two others must be understood differently with respect to each of those words
syllogism
form reasoning in which two premises are made and a conclusion is drawn from them
Synecdoche
figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent a whole (wheels=car)
Synesthesia
figure of speech in which there is a blending of different senses in describing something
Syntax
grammatical structure of a sentence, the arrangement of words in a sentence
Theme
the central idea or message of a literary wotk
Thesis
the main idea of a text
Tone
author's implied attitude towards its subject
Transition
word or phrase that links one idea to the next and carries the reader from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph
Tricolon
sentence consisting of three equal parts of importance and length
Understatement/Litotes
statement that says less than what it means