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Microbiology (Exam 4): Chapter 14, 15, and 16-21
Terms in this set (40)
a way to "train" our immune system; small exposure to a disease so that our immune system can learn to recognize the disease and remember it; stimulates the production of antibodies
he vaccine contains either parts of microbes or whole microbes that have been killed or weakened (Attenuated strains: will stimulate immune response but don't cause infection)
What can a vaccine contain?
Currently, at least ___ different infections are vaccine preventable
T/F: The CDC estimates from 1994-2013, in the U.S. alone, vaccines prevented 21 million hospitalizations and 732,000 deaths
Used variolation- made powder from dried scabs on smallpox patient (blown up the patients nose- results in smallpox infections having a milder effect); significantly lowered mortality rate of small pox
In China, what did they use to combat smallpox?
noticed milkmaids weren't affected by smallpox epidemics; most of them had contracted cowpox; he suspected that a prior cowpox infection was protective against smallpox
•Purposely inoculated a boy with cowpox pus
•Boy contracted cowpox, but quickly recovered
•Jenner then infected him with smallpox, but he showed no symptoms
How did Edward Jenner test his hypothesis?
T/F: Smallpox is considered eradicated (last case was diagnosed in 1977).
T/F: As our knowledge of pathogens increased, science has been able to develop more and more vaccines (techniques in lab also have contributed to development in vaccines)
•Cost (financial ability to produce vaccines and receive)
•False information (social aspect- many refuse to get vaccinated or vaccinate their children)
•Status of the particular country you want to bring the vaccine to (if the country is war torn or have a government that is against providing their vaccine to their people; troubling because the vaccine has to be distributed everywhere; another barrier would be trying to get vaccines to others- hard in underdeveloped countries)
What barriers exist to using vaccination to eradicate disease?
•Claimed a correlation between MMR vaccine and autism; study included ONLY 12 patients!!!!! (NOT AN ADEQUATE SAMPLE SIZE!)
•Many people started to decline the MMR vaccine to their children
•2010: fully retracted the MMR/autism study (the Lancet published another paper to say it was bad science- turns out the authors of this study were being funded by lawyers of parents with autistic children)
•A 2015 study of 95,000 children (no link between MMR vaccine and autism)
•Led to a mistrust in science (broke the code of ethics in scientific research)
Describe the paper that was published in The Lancet.
the paper published in the Lancet that claimed there was a correlation between the MMR vaccine and autism
What broke the code of ethics in scientific research and led to a mistrust in science?
T/F: In the US and UK, the drop in childhood vaccination rates has led to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases
Measles (outbreak at DisneyLand in 2015) and pertussis
What 2 diseases show the strongest re-emergence?
No more opt out for personal reasons of vaccinations (only medical reasons will allow you to opt out of these vaccinations)
In response to increasing outbreaks, some areas changed school enrollment rules. What does this mean?
Vaccines can be injected, inhaled, or ingested and they come in diverse formulations
How are vaccines administered?
•Include an attenuated or weakened microbe
•Include fragments of a microbe
•Include isolated or inactivated toxins
•Include genetically manufactured portions of the microbe
Vaccines can contain what 4 things?
It takes a little bit for that adaptive immune response to kick in (takes about 2 weeks to bring our antibody levels to a park)
T/F: Vaccines provide immediate protection
Vaccines can stimulate ____________ memory
•Very young, very old
Name some people that may not be able to receive vaccines
Risk for routine vaccinations is low or high?
vaccinating the community then protects those who cannot be vaccinated; most pathogens require 85% of the population to be vaccinated to achieve this (others need 95% vaccination- depends on pathogen); protecting people who cannot get the vaccine for medical reasons; protects those who are not immunized
-Variance (like antigenic drift or shift): when these pathogens have mutations (herd immunity may no longer apply)
-Virulence factors: exchange of genetic information between these pathogens that gives a new virulence factor (then the vaccinations may not be affected)
-People refusing to immunize or not doing it on schedule
-Something in community at large that makes the entire community immunocompromised (may allow another pathogen to infect us in a way it wasn't able to do before)
Identify ways "Herd Immunity" could breakdown in a community.
What does the USCDC provide?
Routine childhood vaccines protect against more than _____ different pathogens
To stimulate optimal immunological memory, 2 or more _________ are often needed of many of these different vaccinations
to give our immune system time to respond
Why are boosters given over a certain amount of time (spread apart)?
Because immunological memory can wane over time depending on the type of vaccine
Why do we get boosters?
Not following the recommended schedule (opting to space vaccines more)
What can break down herd immunity?
T/F: Need for vaccination continues into late adolescence and even adulthood
Around 6-18 months old
When is a child's 3rd Hep B vaccine due?
Around 4-6 years old
If a child had 1 MMR when they were 12 months old, when is the next one due?
How many PCV's are needed to achieve full immunity?
1st dose: around 11-12 years old
2nd dose: 16 years old
When would a person receive their immunizations for Meningococcal meningitis?
-Purified subunit vaccines (natural and recombinant)
Name the different types of vaccines
type of vaccine; active virus or live bacterium rendered nonpathogenic
type of vaccine; portion of pathogen is used to stimulate an immune response
Purified subunit vaccines (natural and recombinant)
type of vaccine; made by either purifying parts of the actual pathogen or, in recombinant vaccines, using genetic engineering to make parts of the pathogen
type of vaccine; inactivated protein toxin
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