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bio final exam
Terms in this set (74)
proteins serve many functions in the human body. which of these is not a function of protein?
metabolism, transport, defense, motion/movement
what is the process by which the sun's energy is trapped as the source of energy used by virtually all living organisms?
the subatomic particle of an atom that carries no charge is an?
the two parts of a species name, in order, are the
genus and Species names
cholesterol belongs to which of the following groups?
anything that occupies space and has mass is called?
If the pH of cytoplasm is approximately 7.2, the cytoplasm is
What is a substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties (composed of one type of atom)?
What six elements make up 95% of the body weight of organisms? (Acronym chnops)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
What is the smallest part of an element that displays the property of the element?
A ______ and its atom share the same name.
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons are composed of what?
Protons are _______ charged
Neutrons have what charge?
no charge (neutral)
Electrons are _______ charged, have very low mass, and negligible in calculations
What atomic number is equal to what number of _______ in each atom of an element?
The mass number of an atom is equal to the sum of the number of protons and __________ in atom's nucleus
Atoms of an element are arranged horizontally by increasing atomic number in rows called
Atoms of an element arranged in vertical columns are called
The atomic number tells you the number of electrons as well as the number of
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of ________ (and therefore different atomic masses)
The atomic ____________ is approximately equal to the mass number
Weight or mass
Radioactive isotopes give off ______ in the form of rays and subatomic particles
Carbon ______ is an example of radioactive isotopes and has been used to examine reactions in photosynthesis
Electrons are ________ to the positively charged nucleus; thus, it takes energy to hold electrons in place
Electrons have energy due to their relative __________ (potential energy)
What determines the chemical behavior of atoms?
What model is always a useful way to visualize electron location?
Electrons revolve around the nucleus in what?
Energy Shells (energy levels)
The first energy shell can hold up to ____ electrons
Each additional shell can hold up to _____ electrons
Each ______ shell is filled first before electrons are placed into the next shell
What is the outermost energy shell of any atom called?
The valence shell is important because it determines many of an atom's ______ properties
What rule states that the outermost shell is most stable when it has eight electrons?
Atoms that have their valence shells filled with electrons tend to be chemically
Atoms that do not have their valence shells filled with electrons are chemically
If an atom only has one shell, the outermost valence shell is complete when it has ____ electrons
What is it called when two or more elements are bonded together?
A ______ is a molecule containing at least two different elements bonded together
A _______ tells the number of each kind of atom in a molecule
Bonds that exist between atoms in molecules contain
Bonds between atoms are caused by the interactions between electrons in _____ energy shells
What is the process of bond formation called?
An ion is an atom that has lost or gained an
An ionic bond forms when electrons are _____ from one atom to another and the oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other
What are solid substances that usually separate and exist as individual ions in water?
Covalent bonds result when two atoms ______ electrons so each atom has an octet of electrons in the outershell
In a non polar covalent bond electrons are shared ______ between atoms
In a polar covalent bond electrons are shared
What type of molecule is water?
A _________ bond is a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
A hydrogen bond helps to maintain the proper structure and function of complex molecules such as proteins and
Water molecules cling together because of ______ bonding
Water has a high _______ capactiy
The presence of many hydrogen bonds allow water to absorb a large amount of thermal energy without a great change in
Water has a high heat of
Water is a good
What does hydrophilic mean?
Water loving (dissolve)
What does hydrophobic mean?
Water fearing (does not dissolve)
A _______ contains dissolved substances, or solutes
What is the ability of water molecules to cling to each other due to hydrogen bonding?
What is the ability of water molecules to cling to other polar surfaces
Frozen water (ice) is less ____ that liquid water
What is the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution?
What are substances that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions
What are substances that either 1. take up hydrogen ions or 2. Release hydrogen ions
The pH scale is used to indicate the acidity or basicity/ ______ of a solution
A pH of 0 to 7 is what?
A pH of 7 is
A pH of 7 to 14 is what?
A _____ is a chemical or a combination of chemicals that keep pH within normal limits
Human blood if normally pH 7.4 which is?
Carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system in _____ dissociates and re-forms to reduce changes in pH
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