An interval during which certain kinds of growth must occur if development is to proceed normally.
Unconscious tactics that either prevent threatening material from surfacing or disguise it when it does
A psychological state occurring in group members that results in loss of individuality and a tendency to do things not normally done when alone.
The ability to generate many different solutions to a problem.
A physiological state that arises from an imbalance in homeostasis and prompts action to fulfill a need.
A tightly stretched membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations that match the sound waves striking it; also known as the tympanic membrane.
elaboration likelihood model
A model of attitude change suggesting that people can change their attitudes through a central route (by considering an argument's content) or through a peripheral route (in which they rely on irrelevant persuasion cues)
A brief electric shock administered to the brain, usually to reduce severe depression that does not respond to drug treatments.
A temporary positive or negative experience that is felt as happening to the self, that is generated partly by interpretation of situations, and that is accompanied by learned and innate physical responses
The process of putting information into a form that the memory system can accept and use.
Cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting hormones.
Feminine hormones that circulate in the bloodstream.
The part of a person's identity that reflects the racial, religious, or cultural group to which he or she belongs.
Bundles of axons that travel together.
The curved, transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye.
fight or flight syndrome/response
Physical reactions triggered by the sympathetic nervous system that prepare the body to fight or flee a threatening situation.
The part of the brain responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior and mental life.
A region in the center of the retina.
frustration aggressive hypothesis
A proposition stating that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggressive behavior.
The tendancy to think about familiar objects in familiar ways.