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Sleep apnea

cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or longer and more than 5 apnea episodes per hour.

what equipment is used for an sleep study

EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG, Pulse-oximetry

what happens in stage 3 & 4 of sleep

RR is slower and more regular

How long does Apnea last

15-20 seconds

what muscles are needed for inspiration

diaphragm, rib cage, and the abdominal muscles

what is the primary muscle of inspiration

the diaphram

what are the accessory muscles used for

to to facilitate respirations when the work of breathing is increased

anything that affects respiratory nerves and muscles directly effects what?



a disease that affects the peripheral nervous system due to changes in the peripheral nerves causing skeletal muscle paralysis aka acute inflammatory polyneuritis

GB is usually preceded by what

upper respiratory infection in association with a viral disease, surgery or an immunization (most commonly the flu shot)

in what disease does the immune system attack the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves


muscle weakness that can potentially result in paralysis, inability to feel textures, heat, pain or other sensations. Is assending and usually appears first in the hands and feet and progresses upwards


the quickness of how fast the symptoms appear distinguishes what disease


early symptoms are fever tiredness weakness nausea and the tingling/numbness in the extremities followed by skeletal muscle paralysis


dysphaseia, atelectasis, resp infection, and vetilatory failure, hemodynamic instablity, hypotension or hypertension can result from this disease


chest sounds with GB

decreased breath sounds, crackles/rhonchi

chest xray GB


ABG with GB

acute ventilatory failure with hypoxima

Pulmonary function studies with GB

NIF and VC will show muscle weakness

Lumbar puncture with GB

cerebrospinal fluid will show increased protein

managment for GB

close monitoring of the diseases proggression

treatment for GB

plasmapheresis and high dose immunoglobluin therapy

what age, gender etc. does GB effect

non specific


higly contagious viral disease that attacks CNS

how many types of polio are there


what is the most serious type of polio

paralytic polio

how does polio occur most commonly

thru the fecal oral route

symptoms of polio

flu like, pains in abdomen, neck and trunk, constipation, muscle waisting, dyspena, paralysis

how long does polio last

acute illness usually 2 weeks but damage to the nerves could last a long time

how do you manage polio


does IPV cause polio


can OPV cause polio


what is treatment for polio

analegsics for pain, acetaminophen for fever, and possible hospitalization

Myasthenia Gravis

disease of the neuro muscular junction and is manifested by muscualr weakness and fatigue caused by a defect in the neuromusclar juncton and is the most common neuromuscular junction disorder

droopy eyelids and double vision are commone with


symptoms tend to come and go


how is MG diagnosed

history, Tensilon Test and blood tes checking the amount of ACH antibodies

who is most likely to get MG

2 times more common in woman than in men woman age 15-35 and men age 40-70

what is treatment for MG

mestinon, thymectomy, 02, hyperinflation theraphy, and mechanical ventilation

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig's disease

a progressive neurologic disease characterized by degeneration of cell bodies in the gray matter of the anterior horns in the spinal cord and the motor nuclei of the brain stem

difficulty walking, difficulty in speech and swallowing indicates


possible causes of ALS

glumtamate toxicity, oxidative injury, prolonged influx of calceium

how is ALS diagnosed

MRI, EMG, muscle biopsy and blood test

what is the cure for ALS

there is not one

What drug helps slow down ALS


Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

differs from the others bc it is not a disease of CNS or PNS but rather of the muscle exclussively

who does DMD affect

most commonly males exclussively from birth

what causes DMD

the lack of a single muscle protein called dystrophin

walks with difficulty and frequent falls, possible lordosis


blood test for creatine kinase, muscle biopsy for lack of dystrophin are diagnosis test for


is there a cure for DMD


treatment for DMD

physical theraphy, occupational theraphy, possible surgery

how long do DMD patients live

often die around 15 from cardiopulmonary failure

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