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53 terms

neuromuscular diseases

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Sleep apnea
cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or longer and more than 5 apnea episodes per hour.
what equipment is used for an sleep study
EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG, Pulse-oximetry
what happens in stage 3 & 4 of sleep
RR is slower and more regular
How long does Apnea last
15-20 seconds
what muscles are needed for inspiration
diaphragm, rib cage, and the abdominal muscles
what is the primary muscle of inspiration
the diaphram
what are the accessory muscles used for
to to facilitate respirations when the work of breathing is increased
anything that affects respiratory nerves and muscles directly effects what?
ventiliation
Guillain-barre
a disease that affects the peripheral nervous system due to changes in the peripheral nerves causing skeletal muscle paralysis aka acute inflammatory polyneuritis
GB is usually preceded by what
upper respiratory infection in association with a viral disease, surgery or an immunization (most commonly the flu shot)
in what disease does the immune system attack the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves
GB
muscle weakness that can potentially result in paralysis, inability to feel textures, heat, pain or other sensations. Is assending and usually appears first in the hands and feet and progresses upwards
GB
the quickness of how fast the symptoms appear distinguishes what disease
GB
early symptoms are fever tiredness weakness nausea and the tingling/numbness in the extremities followed by skeletal muscle paralysis
GB
dysphaseia, atelectasis, resp infection, and vetilatory failure, hemodynamic instablity, hypotension or hypertension can result from this disease
GB
chest sounds with GB
decreased breath sounds, crackles/rhonchi
chest xray GB
normal
ABG with GB
acute ventilatory failure with hypoxima
Pulmonary function studies with GB
NIF and VC will show muscle weakness
Lumbar puncture with GB
cerebrospinal fluid will show increased protein
managment for GB
close monitoring of the diseases proggression
treatment for GB
plasmapheresis and high dose immunoglobluin therapy
what age, gender etc. does GB effect
non specific
polio
higly contagious viral disease that attacks CNS
how many types of polio are there
3
what is the most serious type of polio
paralytic polio
how does polio occur most commonly
thru the fecal oral route
symptoms of polio
flu like, pains in abdomen, neck and trunk, constipation, muscle waisting, dyspena, paralysis
how long does polio last
acute illness usually 2 weeks but damage to the nerves could last a long time
how do you manage polio
vaccine
does IPV cause polio
no
can OPV cause polio
yes
what is treatment for polio
analegsics for pain, acetaminophen for fever, and possible hospitalization
Myasthenia Gravis
disease of the neuro muscular junction and is manifested by muscualr weakness and fatigue caused by a defect in the neuromusclar juncton and is the most common neuromuscular junction disorder
droopy eyelids and double vision are commone with
MG
symptoms tend to come and go
MG
how is MG diagnosed
history, Tensilon Test and blood tes checking the amount of ACH antibodies
who is most likely to get MG
2 times more common in woman than in men woman age 15-35 and men age 40-70
what is treatment for MG
mestinon, thymectomy, 02, hyperinflation theraphy, and mechanical ventilation
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig's disease
a progressive neurologic disease characterized by degeneration of cell bodies in the gray matter of the anterior horns in the spinal cord and the motor nuclei of the brain stem
difficulty walking, difficulty in speech and swallowing indicates
ALS
possible causes of ALS
glumtamate toxicity, oxidative injury, prolonged influx of calceium
how is ALS diagnosed
MRI, EMG, muscle biopsy and blood test
what is the cure for ALS
there is not one
What drug helps slow down ALS
rilutek
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
differs from the others bc it is not a disease of CNS or PNS but rather of the muscle exclussively
who does DMD affect
most commonly males exclussively from birth
what causes DMD
the lack of a single muscle protein called dystrophin
walks with difficulty and frequent falls, possible lordosis
DMD
blood test for creatine kinase, muscle biopsy for lack of dystrophin are diagnosis test for
DMD
is there a cure for DMD
no
treatment for DMD
physical theraphy, occupational theraphy, possible surgery
how long do DMD patients live
often die around 15 from cardiopulmonary failure