test 2 materials

The core of every virus particle always contains
A. enzymes
B. capsomeres
C.either DNA or RNA
E. DNA and RNA
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Terms in this set (50)
A patient undergoing chemotherapy for cancer develops an infection with cytomegalovirus, conclusively diagnosed by the presence of "owl's eye" viral nuclear inclusions in a liver biopsy. This is an example of a(n) _______.

A. immune response by the host
B. transformation of the host cell by cytomegalovirus
C. cytopathic effect by cytomegalovirus
D. cytomegalovirus becoming a provirus
The development of antiviral drug therapy is difficult because _____.
A. viruses do not contain genetic material
B. viruses do not have specific replication cycles that can be targeted
C.their life cycles do not have distinctive stages
D. viruses are obligate intracellular parasites so the host cell can be harmed by the drug
Which of the following is not true regarding the structure and function of viral spikes?
A. They are coded for by the viral genome
B. They consist of proteins and carbohydrates
C. They are found on both enveloped and naked viruses
D. They mediate the docking process of virus to host cell
E. They are coded for by the host genome
In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one ____ from the sample. A. cell; colony B. colony; cell C. cell; cell D. species; colony E. generation; cellB.When microbes live independently but cooperate and share nutrients, it is called______. A. synergism B. symbiosis C. mutualism D. satellitism E. antibiosisA.There term photo autotroph refers to an organism that ____. A. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds B. does not need a carbon source C. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs D. is a decomposer E. gets energy from sunlightE.Microorganisms require small quantities of ___ for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure. A. growth factors B. carbon C. trace elements D. water E. macronutrientsC.In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting. A. hypotonic B. All of the choices are correct. C. hypertonic D. isotonicA.An organism that does not use oxygen in its metabolic pathways but can survive in its presence is a (n) ____. A. microaerophile B. obligate anaerobe C. facultative anaerobe D. aerotolerant anaerobe E. obligate aerobeDA microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with _____. A. high salt B. high acidity C. oxygen D. temperatures above 37 degrees Celsius E. carbon dioxideC.The phase of the bacterial growth curve that shows the maximum rate of cell division is the _____. A. lag phase B. exponential (log) phase C. death phase D. prophase E. stationary phaseB.Which of the following require the cell to use ATP? A. Facilitated diffusion B. None of the choices are correct. C. Endocytosis D. Osmosis E. DiffusionC.A halophile would grow best in ______. A. salt lakes B. hot geyser springs C. freshwater ponds D. arid, desert soil E. acid poolsA.The reactions of fermentation function to produce ______ molecules for use in glycolysis. A. ATP B. NADH C. NAD + D. Glucose E. pyruvic acidC. NAD +The carrier molecules in the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are ______. A. flavoproteins B. NADH C. FAD D. NAD+ E. cytochromesE.In a bacterial cell, synthesis of an essential amino acid would take place continually unless the amino acid was abundant in the growth media, in which case ________. A. the enzymes that catalyze the reactions to hydrolyze the amino acid would be repressed B. the genes that code for the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of the amino acid would be induced C. the genes that code for the enzymes that catalyzed the synthesis of the amino acid would be repressed D. the enzymes that catalyze the reactions to hydrolyze the amino acid would be inducedC.In aerobic respiration, the majority of the reduced coenzyme NADH is produced in _______. A. photosyntesis B. the electron transport chain C. glycolysis D. the Krebs cycle E. the cell membraneD.In the electron transport chain, the collective, captured energy released by electrons is used to phosphorylate ______. A. NAD B. oxygen C. pyruvic acid D. ADP E. ATPD.Reduction of nitrogen-oxygen ions, such as nitrate, by some bacteria is called ______. A. aerobic respiration B. denitrification C. fermentation D. deamination E. nitrificationB.Fermentation _______. A. requires oxygen B. can be equivalent to aerobic respiration in ATP production C. requires an organic electron acceptor D. is the same as anaerobic respiration E. only occurs in aerobic organismsC.The formation of citrate from oxaloacetate and an acetyl-CoA begins _____. A. oxidative phosphorylation B. the Krebs cycle C. glycolysis D. the electron transport system E. fermentationB.Feedback inhibition, a negative feedback mechanism that regulates enzymes, is best described as _______. A. substrate binding to enzyme in noncompetitive site B. None of the choices are correct C. product binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription D. substrates binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription E. product binding to enzyme in noncompetitive siteE.Most electrons carriers are _____. A. inorganic phosphates B. enzymes C. coenzymes D. polysaccharides E. hydrogensC.All of the following pertain to transcription except _______. A. occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm B. requires a template DNA strand C. occurs before translation D. proceeds in the 5' to 3' direction of the growing mRNA molecule E. requires RNA polymeraseA.Restriction endonuclease recognize and clip at DNA base sequences called _____. A. codons B. palindromes C. exons D. introns E. genesB.A new field of research called nutrigenomics is based on the premise that individuals gain or lose weight according to differences in their individual genomes, making "going on a diet" no longer a one-size-fits-all solution. This is based on what genomic principle? A. Each human genome differs because of frameshift mutations. B. The human genome contains 10 million SNPs. C. Human genes and consumption of nutrients are completely unrelated. D. All humans genes code for the same proteins.B.The enzymes that can proofread replicating DNA, detect incorrect bases, excise them and correctly replace them are _____. A. DNA helicases B. primases C. DNA polymerases D. DNA ligases E. DNA gyrasesC.A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called ____. A. mutation B. translation C. alteration D. regeneration E. transcriptionA.The duplication of a cell's DNA is called ______. A. replication B.mitosis C. mutation D. transcription E. translationA.If the wild-type DNA sequence reads THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, what type of mutation would change the sequence to THE CAT ATE THE BAG RAT? A. Missense B. Insertion C. Nonsense D. Deletion E. SilentA.Common vectors used to transfer a piece of DNA into a cloning host are ______. A. artificial chromosomes B. plasmids C. bacteriophages D. viruses E. All of the choices are correctE.Which PCR step synthesizes complimentary DNA strands? A. Add primers B. Repeat the cycle of heating cooling C. Heat target DNA to 94 degree Celsius D. Add DNA polymerase and nucleotides at 72 degree celsius E. Cool DNA to between 50 degree celsius and 65 degree CelsiusD.The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called _____. A. primer RNA B. messenger RNA C. transfer RNA D.ribosomal RNA E. ribozymesC.Which one of the following is not a characteristic of Viruses? A. Do not independently fulfill the characteristics of life B. Viruses do not parasitize plants C. Lack machinery to synthesize proteins D. An obligate intracellular parasiteB.Viruses can not contain what type of genetic material. A. RNA and DNA at the same time B. RNA that converts to DNA C. DNA D. RNAA.Where do DNA viruses conduct Synthesis A. Cell membrane B. Cytoplasm C.Ribosome D. NucleusD.Which way does more water move when a cell is put in an hypotonic solution? A. In the cell B. Out of the cell C. No movement D. In and out of the CellA.Which category of microbes would you expect to see growing in the high altitudes of a mountain. A. aerobes B. microaerophiles C. pseudophiles D. aerotolerant aerobesB.Which one of the following metabolic processes is an example of anabolism. A. Citric acid cycle B. Acetyl CoA C. Protein synthesis D. GlycolysisC.During a Oxidation and Reduction reaction, what kind of bond is formed. A. Covalent B.Hydrogen C. Ionic D. No bonds formC.What is it called in a double stranded DNA has one side of the DNA that runs in one direction and the other side runs in the opposite direction. A. stupid B. anti-parallel C. they don't, they run in the same direction D. semi-conservativeB.In lab, which staining procedure helps to determine the composition of the cell membrane? A. Acid Fast-stain B. None of the answers are correct C. Gram Stain D. Endospore stainC.During Gram staining one of the steps fix the color and is revered to as a mordant? A. Gram's Iodine B. Alcohol C. Crustal Violet D. SafraninA.