Terms in this set (12)
What is Paradigm shift?
transition from individual counseling to family counseling...rather than individual perspective, problem definition and resolution is viewed from systems perspective
What is reciprocal determinism?
in a social system, every member can influence and be influenced by every other member in a continuous process
What is linear causality?
suggests that one event causes another in a unidirectional fashion (stimulus response)--CONTENT
What is circular causality?
suggests that there are forces moving in many directions at the same time so the influence and results impact each other resulting in complex array of outcomes--PROCESS
What are some differences between individual counseling and family counseling theories?
-locus of pathology (viewed within social context)
-focus of treatment interventions (focus on family)
-unit of treatment (with family in mind)
-duration of treatment-more brief than individual counseling
family cycles (many variations due to varied cultures)
-joining of families through marriage
-adolescents-flexibility of family boundaries, aging grandparents
-later life-shifting of generational roles
Who proposed general systems theory?
Ludwig von Bertalanffy-organization and interrelations of parts is important-circular thinking, not linear
Psychodynamic theory of family counseling
-Nathan Ackerman-couple beings psychological heritage and resemblances from families-may being introjects (memories) from parents-family unit seeks homeostasis-Ackerman believed in acting as catalyst for change
-James Framo-believed social context of a person's life helped shape bx-believed human beings in childhood are object seeking-begins therapy with family and concludes with couples therapy and family of origin conferences
Experiential family counseling
-Carl Whitaker-less reliant on theory, highly involved in therapeutic process, actively joins family, process if most important, uses symbolism to help explain experiences
Humanistic family counseling
-Virginia Satir-people have resources within themselves, self-concept is important, poor communication is often blocking members form healthy functioning, under stress, Satir believed family members would adopt one of 5 different styles of communication: placater, blamer, super-reasonable, irrelevant, congruent
-focuses on process and her style is experiential
Family Systems theory
-Murray Bowen (developed theory), emphasized the family as an emotional unit in the formation of dysfunctional behavior in a family member-transgenerational approach
-identified 8 theoretical concepts:
1. differentiation of self (distinguish btw thinking processes and feeling processes)
2. triangles (2 people fused, 3rd person resolves stress)
3. family projection process-fused, unstable marital partners will focus on one of the children
4. emotional cutoff-children involved in projection process may try to escape fusion
5. multigenerational transmission process-poorly differentiated child of poorly differentiated parents will marry another poorly differentiated person---process continues through generations
6. sibling position-roles tend to be associated with birth order-couples may either complement each other or compete depending on birth order
7. societal regression-pessimistic view that society is regressing because it does not differentiate between emotional and intellectual decision-making
8. therapy begins with assessment, developed genogram for last 3 generations
Structural family therapy