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adv exp quiz questions exam 4
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Terms in this set (40)
In comparing differences in ratings of responsibility for an automobile accident between male and female drivers, the null hypothesis would be
there is no difference in ratings of responsibility between male and female drivers
If BOTH the independent and dependent variables use nominal scale properties, the most appropriate statistical test would be _____?
chi-squared
You read in the newspaper that Proposition Q is favored by 57% of those polled. The results of the survey are said to be accurate within 2 percentage points (this is the confidence interval) using a 95 percent confidence level. You can assume
if this study was conducted 100 times, we would expect that 95 of those times to find that 55 to 59 percent of the population favor Proposition Q
Top education researchers publish findings that suggest there is no difference in test performance of undergraduate students. In actuality, there is an actual difference in test performance between online and in-person classes. This is considered a ____ error.
type 2
Juan wants to test the hypothesis that the mean amount of sales dollars will vary between Oak Ridge, Oak Wood, and Oak Park shopping malls. The appropriate statistical test would be the
One-Way ANOVA
A researcher is interested in whether parents are more patient than non-parents. Patience (their DV) is measured on a 7-point likert scale. The IV is parental status. What statistical test would be best to use?
independent-samples T-Test
A researcher is interested in whether or not gender (male x female) and drinking frequency (number of alcoholic drinks per week) influence a students' GPA. What statistical test would be best for this experiment?
multiple linear regression
Which of the following is not correct regarding the use of statistical tests?
the p-value can be used to show you how large the effect is of the IV on the DV
Jeremy would like to explore relationships between frequency of checking social media websites and their degree of narcissism (measured on 10-item likert survey). What statistical test is best to use?
pearson correlation test
Dr.Hall would like to examine whether musicians have better memory recall than non-musicians (memory recall: # of words recalled), and whether those with ADHD might have better memory recall compared to non-ADHD people if they are also a musician. What statistical test would be best for this experiment?
between-subjects factorial ANOVA
A factorial design involves
having two or more dependent variables
A researcher examines how anxiety and gender influence a person's memory recall. Thus, there are two IVs: anxiety and gender. Participants are randomly assigned to a low or high anxiety condition and their gender is collected. Then participants are asked to recall a series of number strings shown on a computer screen. Results show that participants in the high anxiety condition had worse memory recall compared to participants in the low anxiety condition, regardless of their gender. This statement tells you that there was a(n)
main effect of anxiety
Parker finds that judgments of responsibility (the DV) for an automobile accident is greater for male drivers if the outcome is severe than if it is mild. However, for female drivers, ratings are the same irrespective of the outcome. The IVs are outcome (severe x mild) and gender (male x female). These findings suggest
there is an interaction between gender and outcome
An IV x PV design has
one manipulated and one non-manipulated variable (quasi-IV)
You have designed an experiment manipulating age of an applicant (young, middle, old); gender (male, female); and type of job applied for (blue collar, white collar). What type of design is used?
3 x 2 x 2
In a 4 x 3 factorial design, for a completely independent groups design with 10 participants per group, how many participants will you need?
120
An investigator wants to test the effectiveness of visualization on sports performance. She randomly assigns participants to one of two groups. Participants in the visualization group imagine themselves swinging a golf club perfectly for 20 minutes prior to a session on the driving range. Participants in the control group read Golf magazine for 20 minutes prior to a session on the driving range. All participants do this procedures each day for five days (game session day is an IV). The dependent measure, the average flight distance of the ball, is calculated for each participant after each session. This is an example of a ____ design.
2 x 5 mixed-subjects factorial ANOVA
Gilbert was interested to see how personality type and amount of alcohol intake affected singer confidence. First, participants completed a survey that identified them as either an introvert or an extrovert. Then, participants were asked to drink a "cocktail" containing either no alcohol, 3 ounces of alcohol, or 6 ounces of alcohol. After 30 minutes, participants were told to sign karaoke to "I Will Survive." Participants were then asked to rate how well they sang the song, from a scale of 1 (very poorly) to 7 (very well). How many total number of conditions, main effects, and interactions are there in this study?
6 conditions, 2 main effects, and 1 interaction
Which of the following scenarios would researchers need to conduct a post-hoc test?
a one-way ANOVA with one IV that had three conditions
Which of the following is true about a post-hoc test?
post hoc tests protect against (lowers chances of) making a Type 1 error rate
Dr.Smith would like to describe what his sample of 100 college students resembled in terms of their knowledge of research methods but he does not care about assessing how much his class is representative of all college students. What type of statistics would Dr. Smith most heavily rely upon to write up his results?
descriptive statistics
Which of the following hypotheses would be considered the alternative hypothesis?
energy levels will not be equal between the caffeinated and the decaffeinated groups
Which of the following statements about p-values are TRUE?
larger sample sizes can results in smaller p-values, p-values tell you the likelihood that your results are due to chance alone
40% of college seniors said they planned to take a "gap year" after graduation to decide what they wanted to do. The confidence level is 95% and the confidence interval is 15%. If you ran this study 100+ times, ____ of the time you would expect the percentage of seniors planning to take on a gap year to be between _____ and ______.
95%, 25%, 55%
Which of the following statements would be most reflective of a Type II error?
Jeanne found no significant correlation between her variables of stress and irritability even though they really do exist in the world, if only he had a bigger and better sample!, Hattie found no significant differences between her IV groups, even though they actually are significantly different, had we known how to control for another third variable.
Which of the following issues can lead researchers to claim that a study had a Type I error?
uncovered findings cannot be replicated in similar studies
In a t-test, as the t-value increases, the p-value will _______.
decrease
Dr. Dre would like to see how the gender of the participant and the type of music they listened to for 20 minutes (country, rap, rock, classical) will impact their blood pressure. For the music condition, participants only were exposed to 1 of the 4 conditions. All of his participants took part in the study during their senior year of college during final exam week. What type of statistic is best in this case?
a between-subjects factorial ANOVA
Dr. Hermione Granger would like to know if muggle-borns (wizard children of non-magical parents) vs blood wizards (wizard children of magical parents) prefer to be part of a particular house (group) at Hogwarts School of Magic (Slytherin x Hufflepuff x Ravenclaw x Gryffindor). What type of statistical test would be best for her to use?
chi-square test
Bilbo Baggins would like to know how number of books read, species of person (elf vs human vs hobbit vs dwarf) and height of the individual (in inches) can tell you about what to expect for their lifespan (age in years). What type of statistical test is best for Bilbo to use?
multiple linear regression
Dr. Nikon is doing a study relating to memory of other people's faces. All participants happen to be psychology majors in this study. Participants are randomly assigned to be in 1 of 2 conditions - they are asked to either imagine being really stressed or they are asked to imagine being really relaxed for about 5 minutes of time. Then they are asked to look at a list of 20 faces (headshots only) all at once for about 5 minutes of time. Then they are asked to select the correct 20 faces they saw out of a 50 face database - the outcome variable is the percentage of correctly identified faces. Dr. Nikon would like to show that those in the relaxed condition remembered more faces than those in the stressed condition. What type of test is best for this study?
independent samples t-test
Researchers working for the Travel Channel on TV would like to show which type of island living is associated with the highest level of happiness, but due to all the differences seen in personal preferences for various islands, they would like to have each "participant" live in each island setting for 3 months. Participants are asked to live in Hawaii, Iceland, Okinawa, and Bermuda; each location is lived in for 3 months; during each location, participants are occasionally asked to rate their happiness levels. The researcher would like to compare the single average happiness levels taken from each of the 4 locations within each participant to show that happiness is highest in Hawaii and lowest in Iceland. In addition, they do take into account whether the participant lived alone or was with a significant other. The order of living location is measured but discounted as a variable in the study (due to no differences) so don't consider that as a variable in this example. What type of analysis is best in this case?
mixed-subjects factorial ANOVA
For the travel channel study, if you wanted 30 participants who were married and 30 participants who were single, and you wanted all participants to live in all 4 island locations, how many total participants would you have?
60
Dr. Williams is looking at how caffeine condition (decaf vs caf) impacts memory recall. Which of the following scenarios in Dr. William's results would eliminate his ability to run a parametric statistical test (which scenarios would violate assumptions of parametric statistics)? In other words, which of the following situations would make him have to use non-parametric statistics to analyze his data? Select all that apply.
Dr. Williams sees a negatively skewed distribution in his memory recall dependent variable, Dr. Williams sees that there is a much wider range of scores in the caffeine group compared to the decaf group.
Which statistical test would possibly require a post-hoc test?
a one-way between-subjects ANOVA
Bonferroni post-hoc tests will result in having a _______ p-value when comparing which groups within an IV impact the DV. If there are 4 groups, and the alpha is .01, then the new p-value is ______ and therefore the chance of a Type 2 error _______.
smaller, .003, increases
Which of the following results would indicate a significant main effect of meditation technique?
participants in the meditation technique were significantly less nauseous than participants in the control condition, ignoring their gender
Which of the following results would indicate a significant gender by condition interaction?
male participants had similar levels of nausea no matter which type of meditation condition they were in, whereas females' nausea was much lower in the meditation technique compared to the control technique
In this meditation impact on flight nausea study count as an IV by PV design?
yes it is an IV by PV design
In this meditation impact on flight nausea study, there is(are) _____ main effects to discuss, ______ interaction to discuss, and _______ conditions total.
2, 1, 4
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