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Terms in this set (70)
Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs
Proximal convoluted tubulue
Site of filtrate formation
Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells
Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule
High pressure vessel that forces fluid and solutes into the glomerular capsule.
May lead into meandering vessels or bundles of long straight vessels.
Play a role in urine concentration.
Low pressure, porous vessels that reabsorb solutes and water from the tubule cells.
Fenestrated vessels that allow passage of all plasma elements but not blood cells.
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A) constrict arterioles, increase production of aldosterone, and increase blood pressure
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
glucose is reabsorbed, no glucose excreted in the urine
Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.
The relatively long half-life of lipid soluble hormones (steroid hormones) compared to water soluble hormones is due in part to the way that these hormones are passed into the filtrate from the glomerular capillaries. From the list below select the best explanation for why lipid soluble (steroid) hormones have a relatively long half-life.
Steroid hormones travel in the plasma on large transport proteins that cannot pass through the filtration membrane
The glomerular capsular space contains _____.
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria?
a great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT
Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal autoregulation)?
myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
Through the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, how would an increase in filtrate NaCl concentration affect afferent arteriole diameter?
afferent arteriole diameter would decrease
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibits the release of ADH
Which of the following hormones acting on the collecting duct is most responsible for retaining sodium ions in the blood?
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
hydrostatic pressure of the blood (blood pressure)
Which of the following statements about aldosterone is NOT correct?
- Aldosterone increases the number of passive sodium channels in the luminal membrane of the distal tubule and collecting duct, thus aiding sodium reabsorption
- Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption by increasing the number of Na+-K+ ATPase pumps in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule
- Aldosterone is stimulated by decreased plasma sodium levels and increased plasma potassium levels
- Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal cortex
Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption by increasing the #.......pr
Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?
Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR indirectly through which mechanism?
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Except for potassium ions, tubular secretion of most unwanted substances occurs in the ________.
proximal convoluted tubule
Salt is actively transported out of the filtrate in the nephron loop.
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
What is the best explanation for the microvilli on the apical surface of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)?
they increase the surface area & allow for a greater dsjdkshf
Which of the following is NOT reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
Which of the following is incorrect?
- The kidneys produce a large volume of dilute urine when overhydrated
- The kidneys produce a small volume of concentrated urine when dehydrated
- The concentration of urine is lower when urine volume is reduced
- Urine concentration and volume are determined by countercurrent mechanisms
the concentration of urine is lower when urine volume is reduced
Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.
What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
helps regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus decreases (vasoconstriction), which of the following is NOT likely to occur?
systemic blood pressure will decrease
What does a high concentration of NaCl in the renal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) most likely indicate?
insufficient NaCl reabsorption, this is due to high GFR
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
blood cells, large particles
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
secondary active transport
Which of the following statements about ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is correct?
- ADH is synthesized by the adrenal gland and works in the kidney
- ADH inserts water channels into the luminal membrane of the proximal tubules
- ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland
- ADH would increase urine volume
ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland
Which of the choices below is NOT a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
secreting sodium ions
Hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force of plasma through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. All but one of the following statements reflects why hydrostatic pressure is so high in the glomerular capillaries. Select the one statement that does NOT explain the high pressure within the glomerular capillaries.
the volume of plasma in the efferent arteriole is higher when compared to the afferent arteriole
Glomerular filtration rate can be controlled by manipulating one major variable, which is _____.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
by a decrease in blood pressure
Reabsorption of nutrients like glucose and amino acids takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) via cotransporters that utilize secondary active transport. Which of the following would stop the reabsorption of glucose at the apical surface of the cells in the PCT?
Loss of Na+-K+ ATPase in the basolateral surface of PCT cells
Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?
- Form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
- Absorb water and electrolytes into the tubular network
- Absorb electrolytes actively and water by osmosis in the same segments
- Form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume of very dilute urine
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
In severe dehydration or blood loss, what would be the levels of ADH and what would be the urine flow rate?
ADH - high; low urine flow rate (0.25 ml/min)
What is the osmolarity of the filtrate at the end of the proximal tubule?
isotonic - 300 mOsm
If blood pressure drops very low (MAP is below 80mmHg) renin enzyme will be secreted by granular cells. Which of the following is NOT likely to occur?
kidney perfusion will increase
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
Cells and transport proteins are physically prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. This has the following effect on filtration:
increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduces the amount of filtration
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
The descending limb of the nephron loop _____.
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down the medulla
The factor that promotes filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Which of the following best describes glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic controls of the kidney?
Extrinsic controls have the greatest effect on systemic blood pressure while intrinsic control have a greater effect on GFR.
The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following?
damage to the filtration membrane
What is the effect of antidiuretic hormone on the cells of the collecting duct?
ADH binds to receptors on cells in the collecting ducts of the kidney to promote reabsorption of water back into the circulation
it becomes very permeable to water, facultative water absorption (more water absorbed, less is lost to urine)
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.
25 mm Hg
If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine.
GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect which of the following?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
the stretching of the bladder wall
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