AQA GCSE Geography Case Studies
Terms in this set (105)
Benefits of EU Migration
-Migrants boost declining populations in host countries.
-Migrants earn more money.
-Migrants are willing to take low-paid, unskilled jobs.
Drawbacks of EU Migration
-Sometimes, Migrants take jobs away from citizens of the host country.
-Migrants put extra pressure of health and social services of the host country.
-Economic migration can result in labour and skill shortages in home countries.
CSDs of EU Migration
-In 2004, the EU accepted 10 new countries which meant that more people could move freely within the EU to find work.
-By 2008, the 27 EU member states were receiving nearly 2 million migrants per year.
-In 2008, 1.8 million migrants were coming the to EU from non-EU countries (such as Morocco) per year.
Facts about China's One Child Policy
-Began in 1979
-Couples who only have one child receive economic rewards and welfare benefits (eg. better housing and free education).
-Couples who had more that one child were fined and did not receive any benefits.
-More recently, ethnic minorities and those in rural areas have been made exceptions from the rule.
Benefits of China's One Child Policy
-China's populations is around 300 million lower than it would have been without the policy.
Drawbacks of China's One Child Policy
-Baby girls are not valued as much as baby boys (who can work more and keep the family name) so female infanticide became a problem and many girls were abandoned at orphanages.
-This resulted of a gender imbalance (60 million fewer females).
-Single children will bear the brunt of an ageing population (4-2-1 effect) so each child could have 2 parents and 4 grandparents to support).
- Shortage of workers in the future.
-Forced abortions and sterilizations were common.
-Against human rights.
Facts about Transmigration in Indonesia
-Nearly half of Indonesia's population live on one Island (Java) which causes overcrowding, poverty and other social problems.
-Since the 1960s, millions of people have been moved from islands with high populations densities (like Java) to those with low population densities (like Borneo or Sumatra).
-The government paid for the move and also gave an 18 month living fund to all migrants along with a small farm.
Benefits of Transmigration in Indonesia
-Around 20 millions people have moved.
-Stress on highly-populated areas relieved.
-Infrastructure has been improved on rural islands.
Drawbacks of Transmigration in Indonesia
-The policy hasn't tackled population growth.
-Deforestation increased rapidly when lots of people moved to low-density islands.
-Migrants were not always welcomed to their new homes.
-Endangered species and indigenous populations were affected by the move, causing tension.
-Some islands are harder to farm than others.
Facts about Population Control in Kerala
-Compared to the rest of India, Kerala is considerably more developed.
-Kerala's GDP per capita is $2,950 vs $460 in the rest of India.
-The policy was designed to reduce the population.
Strategies to Control the Population in Kerala (Non-Birth Control)
-Education used to increase literacy rate and teach people about contraceptives and the benefits of having small families (Right to Literacy Program).
-Maternity leave for first two children.
-Higher age of marriage encouraged.
-Free contraceptives and family planning available.
-Boys and Girls treated as equal.
-Improved healthcare in order to reduce Infant Mortality so people no longer need to have as many children.
-Land Redistribution Act so everyone had the same amount of land (8 hectares). This meant that people didn't need to have large families to work the land.
Strategies used in Pro-Natal Policy in France
-Policy called 'LA CODE DE FAMILLE'
-Cash incentives for mothers who stayed at home.
-Sale of contraceptives banned between 1939 and 1967.
-Subsidised holidays for families.
-Payment of up to £1064 for couples having a third child.
-Increased family allowances.
-Maternity Leave on full pay for up to 40 weeks (for third child).
-100% Mortgages for families.
-Pension schemes for mothers.
-Increased child benefit for third child.
Benefits of Poland to UK Migration
-Migrant send money to family back in Poland
-Less demand for Jobs in Poland.
-Polish people have a higher standard of living both at home and abroad.
-£2.54bn is contributed to the UK economy.
-Polish Migrants contribute to 1% of the UK's economic growth.
-Reduces problems of Ageing Population in UK.
Drawbacks of Poland to UK Migration
-Polish Workers may be exploited by UK employers who only pay the minimum wage and take deductions for food, accommodation and transport.
-Some people say that Polish Migrants take jobs from UK residents.
-Tension may occur with immigrants.
-Extra strain put of NHS and schools.
Push and Pulls Factors for Poland to UK Migration
-In Poland, unemployment is at 18.2%
-In Poland, the average GDP per capita is $12,600.
-The poorest people in Poland have just £500 to live off per month.
-The unemployment rate in the UK is much lower at 5.1%
-The UK is suffering from a Skills Shortage and from a shortage of unskilled farm labourers.
-There are more vacancies in the UK (607,000 in 2007).
-The GDP per capita in the UK is higher ($30,900).
Reasons for Rapid Erosion on the Holderness Coast
-Soft boulder clay coastline
-Coastline is exposed to strong waves due to long fetch
-Further up the coast, coastal defences have been build which means that less material is deposited on the Holderness Coast by longshore drift.
-Most of the coastline is not defended by coastal defences
-No beaches are present to slow waves down
-If one area is protected, another may be eroded more
-Cliff-foot processes such as hydraulic action and abrasion caused cliff retreat.
Location of the Holderness Coast
-North East England
-Key Settlements include : Mappleton, Easington Gas Terminal
Statistics for the Holderness Coast
-Upwards of 1.8m of Erosion per year at Mappleton
-100,000 tonnes of material can be removed in one storm
-Fastest erosion rates in Europe
Impacts of Erosion on the Holderness Coast
-Homes and Businesses lost to the sea
-Slump in property prices
-Coastal properties not insured
-Political tensions over which parts of the coast get defended.
-Potential loss of Easington Gas Terminal which provides 25% of the UK's gas
-Loss of habitats and SSSIs.
-Infrastructure and transport links damaged.
-Farmers loose £2million per year
-Loss of buisnesses
-One caravan part lost 23m of land in one storm.
Strategies used at Medmerry
-Previous sea wall breached
-Low value land allowed to flood
-Sediment collected from dredging used to build 4 miles of banks to protect urban area
-New habitats (saltmarshes) created
-Increased leisure/tourism opportunities
Location of Medmerry
Cost of Managed Retreat at Medmerry
-Largest managed retreat scheme in UK
Sea Defences in Minehead
-0.6m curved sea wall (Quay Street) built to deflect wave energy. Made out of attractive local sandstone for aesthetic purposes
-Rock armour used to dissipate wave energy
-Steep concrete revetment to protect coast
-Beach nourishment used to increase beach height by 2m which is excellent for tourism and also slows down waves before they hit the coast
-Four rock groynes (between Warren Road and the Esplanade) were built to retain the beach
Problems at Minehead
-A premier tourist resort with thousands of visitors per year
-£21 million of storm damage
-Key resorts like Butlins need protecting
Location of Minehead
-Key roads: Quay Street, Esplanade and Warren Road
Location of Keyhaven Marshes
-Behind Hurst Castle Spit
Threats to Keyhaven Marshes
-Salt marsh is retreating by 6m per year
-Breaching of Hurst Castle Spit during storms exposed marsh
-Increased visitor numbers increasing damage
-A low sea wall prevents expansion of the marsh
Strategies to Protect Keyhaven Marshes
-£5 million spent on rock armour and beach nourishment to strengthen the Hurst Castle Spit and raise it by 7m
-Access is monitored and restricted to protect areas of SSSI (boardwalks and blocking off areas)
-Information about habitats and protection given to visitors.
Problems with Flooding in East Anglia
-Settlements such as Kings Lynn under threat
-Valuable agricultural land (the fens) under threat
-Norfolk Broads are a popular tourism resort worth £5million+ to the economy and they are under threat
-300 people were killed in a storm surge in 1953
-Vulnerable areas of salt marshes in Essex and under threat. 22% of these salt marshes could be lost by 2050.
-The Thames Barrier (which protects £80 billions worth of London) will need replacing in the next 30 to 50 years
Location of Blackpool
-North West England
-Main Roads: M55 and M6
History of Tourism in Blackpool
-Tourist numbers kept growing till the 1960s
-In the 1970s, Blackpool was hit by the rise of cheap package holidays abroad
-Visitor number halved from 20 million in the 1980s to 10 million in 2007
Problems facing Blackpool
-Beach pollution and erosion
-Families frightened off by binge-drinking culture
-1,000 hotels are closed or run down
-Overcrowding and traffic jams during bank holidays
-Illuminations are the same every year
-Cheap package holidays abroad taking away tourists
-Unemployment out of season
-Unreliable summer weather
-Attractions outdated and boring
Strategies to Improve Blackpool
-Blackpool Masterplan : Smarten up tourist areas by removing old buildings and landscaping areas
-£10 million spent on improving illuminations
-New attractions such as "Water World" added
-Blackpool has marketed itself at a venue for conferences and festivals during off-season times to increase income all year round
-More covered walkways created to prevent weather from putting people off
-Blackpool applied for the UK's first SuperCasino however these plans failed
Location of the Lake District National Park
-North West of England
History of Tourism in the Lake District
-People were first drawn to the area in the 1800s
-The railways arrived in the area in 1851 and between 1960 and 1990 the M6 was built further improving access
-The area became a national part in 1951
-In 2012, the Lake District had 16 million visitors per year
Problems with Tourism in the Lake District National Park
-Major traffic issues as 80% of visitors come by car which causes queues and congestion on narrow A roads and in town centres
-Honeypot Sites such as the hill "Cat Bells" suffer from overcrowding and footpath erosion.
-Litter in the countryside
-Town centres overcrowded
-20% of homes in the Lake District are holiday homes so they are empty for large parts of the year which doesn't help the local economy. As a result of this, house prices have risen significantly in this area
-Watersports and boat trips on the Lakes cause erosion at the shoreline and fuel spills cause water pollution and damage the environment
Solutions in the Lake District National Park
-More dual-carriage ways have been build around the edges of the national park so that traffic moves more easily
-Park and Ride schemes ease town centre traffic congestion
-Footpaths repaired and reinforced
-'Fix the Fells' scheme raises awareness of erosion and raises money to fix the problem
-Development schemes encourage developers to build more affordable housing for local people
-More litter bins have been built
-Adverts and signs have been used to educated visitors about acting responsibly
-Speed limits introduced on the lakes to reduce erosion at the shoreline. The speed limit on Lake Windermere is 18km/h
Main Tourist Areas/Activities in Jamaica
-Coastal areas around Montego Bay and Discovery Bay
-Activities include Bathing, Golf, Caving and a botanical garden
Positive Impacts of Mass Tourism in Jamaica
-Community tourism benefits local people directly
-Tourism emplos 220,000 Jamaicans
-Ecotourism increases investment and awareness about protecting the environment
Negative Impacts of Mass Tourism in Jamaica
-The Islands are too dependent on tourism
-Most of the jobs are low paid and seasonal
-Mass Tourist Resorts do not support local people as profits move overseas (leakage effect)
-Tourists prefer western foods and cultures which doesn't support locals
Location and Climate of Kenya
-Boarders Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia
-Warm and humid climate
Attractions for Mass Tourism in Kenya
-Kenya has Africa's most prolific and easily accessible game parks
-Tourists flock to see the 'Big Five' animals
-Coastline has miles of white coral sand and warm blue waters
-Exciting city of Mombassa
-Climb Mount Kenya with porters, cooks and guides
-Tours of Game Parks given in English in adapted, open top minibuses
-Can stand on the Equator
Positive Impacts of Mass Tourism in Kenya
-Helps to balance the countries' trade defecit
-Creates 250,000 jobs
-Tourism worth 15% of GDP
-Masai Mara is the biggest and richest game park in the world
-Money spent by tourists drips through society (each full time worker supports 7-12 others)
-Tourists buy/use local good and services which supports the local economy
-Income from tourism helps to protect the environment and animals
Negative Impacts of Mass Tourism in Kenya
-Visitor numbers and unpredictable due to Terror Threat in Kenya
-Tourists can take corals which damages the reefs
-Tourists in Minibuses can disturb the wildlife if they get too close
-Minibus drivers go off road
-Poaching of animals occurs
-Boats also damage coral reefs
-Conflict/tension can occur between Masai people and tourists/authorities because the land and lives of the Masai people are disturbed
-Some workers are poorly paid
Strategies to ensure that Mass Tourism in Kenya is Sustainable
-Kenya National Tourism Master Plan
-Holiday activities diversified to relieve pressure on Game Parks and Coast and to spread income among more of population
-Double entry fees to Game Parks so there is more money to protect the environment/wildlife
-Increase minimum price for hotels and reduce visitor numbers by focusing on quality not quantity
-Involve tribes-people in tourism and care of wildlife so they are happier and have more income
-More money for police to improve security for tourists
-New infrastructure (roads and airports) build around Kenya
Facts about Extreme Tourism in Antarctica
-Began on a large scale in 1969
-Increased from 9,000 tourists in 1992 to 46,000 tourists in 2007
-Popular because it is the coldest place on Earth and it is hard to reach. The conditions are also harsh as the temperature is usually around -30 degrees celcius and 98% of it is covered in ice.
Attractions for Extreme Tourism in Antarctica
-Small boat landings
-Wildlife such as penguins, seals and whales
Issues with Extreme Tourism in Antarctica
-Tramples fragile plant life
-Litter takes very long time to decompose so can be very damaging
-Cruise ships and tourists disturb wildlife
-Ships may run aground or cause oil or sewage leaks which would be very damaging to marine life
-Waste from ships causes pollution
Strategies to Manage Extreme Tourism in Antarctica
-Treaties protects the wildlife and the landscape from damage and also ensures that Antarctica is only used for peaceful purposes.
-Boats are limited to 500 passengers to reduce impacts
-Visitors cannot visit SSSIs
-Permits and Education must be given prior to visiting
-Not allowed within 5m of wildlife.
Ecotourism Strategies at the Kapawi Ecolodge, Equador
-Wooden chalets (local, sustainable materials)
-Good rent paid to local Achuar people
-Run by the Achuar Tribe
-Income for local tribes people
-Efforts for conservation of wildlife etc.
Attractions for Tourists on the Galapogos Islands
-Biosphere Reserve and Whale Sanctuary
-Visitors are taken on boat tours with professional guides
-Tourists stay in Small Guest Houses
Problems with Tourism on the Galapogos Islands
-Some sites are overused
-Oil from boats can cause pollution
-The Islands' water supplies are under pressure
Ecotourism Strategies in the Galapogos Islands
-Tourists enter under strict rules
-Small ships are used and visitors are only allowed on shore at specific points and in limited numbers
-Costs have been increased (£800 for 8 days) to reduce visitor numbers
-£25 from each visitor goes to the Galapogos Conservation Trust to pay for conservation work
-Visitors are educated by local professionals to prevent damage
Benefits of Ecotourism in the Galapogos Islands
-Money from tourism goes to conservation
-Tourism offers lots of job opportunities for locals
-Jobs are secure and sustainable
-Local businesses cater for tourists
-Tourists stay in family-run guest houses
-Local economy strengthened
-Better quality of life for locals
Uses of the Granite Landscape in Dartmoor
-Granite is a good building material so there are many quarries
-Dartmoor sees 8 million visitors per year
Importance of Tourism in Dartmoor (Granite Landscape)
-Jobs created for local people
-Contributes to local multiplier effect
-More money for conservation of landscape
-More people educated/aware of landscape
Tourist Attractions in Dartmoor (Granite Landscape)
Location of Dartmoor (Granite Landscape)
-South West England in Devon
-Dartmoor is a National Park
-Key Towns include: Tavistock, Ashburton and Okehampton
Uses of the Limestone Landscape in Malham
-Limestone is used in the building and chemical industry so there are many quarries
-Tourism brings nearly £500 million per year to Malham
Tourist Attractions in Malham (Limestone Landscape)
-Limestone Pavement at Malham (Karst Landscape)
-Gordale Scar (Gorge)
-Malham Tarn (Lake)
-Village of Malham
Location of Malham (Limestone Landscape)
-North East England in Yorkshire
-Malham is a National Park
-Key Towns Include: Village of Malham
Location of Castleton and Key Tourist Attractions (Limestone Landscape)
-In the Peak District
-Limestone Features/Attractions Include: Peak Cavern; Blue John Cavern; Speedwell Cavern; Mam Tor and Winnatts Pass.
Location of Hope Quarry
-Near Settlements of Hope and Castleton
-Main Roads are A6187
-Cement Works Nearby
Advantages of Hope Quarry
-Provides 300 jobs
-Contributes to Local Multiplier Effect
-Produce from Hope Quarry supports local industry (such as nearby Cement Works) due to supply of cheap, local raw materials.
Disadvantages of Hope Quarry
-Wildlife and Habitats destroyed
-Heavy lorries cause traffic congestion
-Hope Cement Works produce 1 million tonnes of CO2 waste per year
-Blasting in Quarry releases large amounts of dust
-Reduces tourism in the area
Strategies to Improve Hope Quarry
-Hope Cement Works uses chipped tyres as fuel to preserve fossil fuels
-Old quarry areas now a managed wetland environment
-Landscaping has reduced visual impact
-75,000 trees have been planted to hide quarry and offset CO2 emmissions
-£15 million spent on improving transport
-Rail used instead of road for 70% of produce
-Efforts to reduce dust by cleaning lorries
Location of Llynclys Quarry
-County of Shropshire
-65 hectares of Land
-150 years old
Management Strategies for Llynclys Quarry
-Area resoiled and reseeded
-Shallow areas of quarry left to nature
-Spoil and rocks left at bottom of cliff to lessen impact
-Restored to grassland
-Fences put up to allow animals to graze
-Wetland habitat encourages new species such as Grizzled Skipper Butterfly and Dan Wrench Grazing Stock
Strategies by the Grameen Bank, Bangladesh
-Lends small amounts of money to the poorest people in Bangladesh
-The bank has now lent US$1bn to over 7 million people in 78,000 villages
-Nearly all the loans are given to women
-Loans allow people to start up their own businesses
-Once businesses are in profit, loans are repaid
-Bank reaches 80% of Bangladesh's poor
Background Information about Hurricane Katrina
-23rd August 2005
States: Louisianna and Missisippi
-Focused on City of New Orleans
-Area size of UK affected by damage
Impacts of Hurricane Katrina
-Over 1,700 killed
-Half a Million became Refugees
-State population fell by 8%
-109,000 made Homeless
-Services and Infrastructure (such as sewers, gas and electricity supplies) were damaged for over 6 months
-Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) helped 108,000 with unemployment benefit
-Housing damage over 100km stretch of coastline
-One million acres of forest destroyed (damaging industry)
-9 million poultry died and the dairy industry lost $12 million (hence, farming suffered)
-Damages in excess of $100 billion
Problems in Ethiopia relating to Water
-Almost half the population have no access to safe drinking water
-33,000 children die per year because of water-borne diarrhea
-Drought damages crops
Wateraid Solutions in Ethiopia
-50 water and sanitation projects have bee funded
-175,000 people were given access to clean water in 2013
Background Information about the Kozuri Beads Factory in Nairobi, Kenya
-Factory located in outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya
-Exports brightly coloured beads and jewelry to large retailers (eg. John Lewis)
-Started in 1975 with two employees
-Women suffer great poverty and must support a large extended family
Fairtrade Strategies at the Kozuri Beads Factory in Nairobi, Kenya
-400 women employed
-Pays £6 per day (versus £2 per day elsewhere in Kenya)
-Sustainable, long-term employment opportunities
-Regular breaks for workers
-Clinic at factory for workers and their families
-Provides skills for workers to improve future prospects
-Minibuses transport workers from their villages to work
Background Information about the Cahora Bassa Dam
-Large-Scale, Top-Down Developement Project
-Completed in 1977
-Dam blocks Zambezi River in North-West Mozambique
Benefits of the Cahora Bassa Dam Project
-Energy can be sold to other countries
-Important power generator
-Hydroelectricity is clean and renewable
-90% of the country's energy supply comes from the Cahora Bassa Dam
-Kapenta Farming industries have developed in the reservoir built
-Energy source stimulates other industries
Drawbacks of the Cahora Bassa Dam Project
-Annual flooding is a problem
-Local shrimp industry have been destroyed
-Most of the workers are brought in from abroad because locals are unskilled
-Only 1% of homes in Rural Mozambique have access to electricity
-There are three dams on the Zambezi River so none of them can work at full capacity
-Many people were displaced to make way for the dam
Short-Term Development Projects in Uganda
-Students built a covered water tank in Kebager Village to reduce disease
-In Bwanyanga Village, student helped in local schools to teach life skills and sexual health lessons to reduce the problem of the Aids Virus.
Comparing EU Development - UK
-Joined EU in 1973
-GDP Per Capita $34,800
Life Expectancy 80.1
-Located in Western Europe
-Stronger Services Industries
-Powerful colonial history
-In CORE of Europe
Comparing EU Development - Bulgaria
-Joined EU in 2007
-GDP Per Capita $13,500
-Life Expectancy 73.6
-Located in Eastern Europe
-Former Communist so less investment
-Extreme climate and altitude limits farming
-EU Aid blocked due to crime
-In PERIPHERY of Europe
Uses of Fold Mountains - The Andes
-Farming- Subsistence farmers use Terraces (flat areas of land cut into the hillside to hold water) to grow food for their families and Cash Crops such as rice and cotton.
-Mining- Andean countries rank in the top ten for mining and as such, the Yanacocha Gold Mine, Peru, is the biggest in to world and contributes to the fact that mining accounts for 50% of Peru's exports.
-Hydroelectric Power (HEP)- Steep relief and regular snow melt generates fast flowing rivers which can be dammed to turn turbines and make electricity. This is evident with the Yuncan Project in NE Peru.
-Tourism- The Andes have many natural attractions such as beautiful mountain peaks, volcanoes, glaciers and lakes along side attractions such at Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail in Peru - all dating back to the ancient Inca empire.
Mount St Helen's Eruption - Cause and Background Info
-A magnitude 5 Earthquake which occured beneath the Composite Cone Volcano on 18th May 1980.
-Located in Washington State, NW America
Mount St Helen's Eruption - Primary Impacts
-1km^3 of material erupted
-Pyroclastic Flow and Lahars caused widespread destruction
-Plants and Animals within a 25km radius were killed, mainly due to poisonous gases
-250 homes and 185 miles of road were destroyed
-15cm of Ash blanketed the area
Mount St Helen's Eruption - Secondary Impacts
-The eruption caused snow to melt which caused lots of flooding and mudflows
-Travel disruption caused by ash
-Crops were destroyed and this alone cost farmers $100 million
-Ash blocked rivers which damaged the fishing industry
-Timber industry was damaged due to destruction of trees
Mount St Helen's Eruption - Positive Impacts
-Soil fertility improved
-Tourism to the area increased
-New species brought into the area
-New and improved infrastructure
Mount St Helen's Eruption - Short Term Response
-Stranded people were rescued and provided with medical supplies and shelter by the National Guard
-Ash was cleared from towns within 3 days
-2,000 people evacuated
Mount St Helen's Eruption - Long Term Response
-The volcano is now more carefully monitored
-$300 million was spent on replacing millions of trees
-Farmers were given $70 million of compensation
-New tourist facilities were build to help this industry grow
-Money was given to rebuild 200 homes
-Millions of tonnes of ash was removed.
Characteristics of the Supervolcano at Yellowstone
-Form a Caldera (sunken crater shape).
-Very infrequent eruptions
-Could potentially erupt 1,000km^3 of material
-Form at hotspots in the middle of plates
-The Volcano is a National Park in NW USA in states of Wyoming, Idaho and Montana
-Geothermal features include OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER and NORRIS GEYSER BASIN
-The magma chamber is beneath Lake Yellowstone and stretches for 80km long and 40km wide.
Possible effects of an eruption at Yellowstone
-Huge pyroclastic flow (aka. ash and rock clouds)
-15cm deep layer of ash spread over 1000km away
-Toxic air would make two-thirds of USA uninhabitable
-10,000km2 of land destroyed
-Massive damage to infrastructure and industry
-Global Climate Change
Haiti Eathquake - Cause and Background Info
-The North American Plate sliding past the Caribbean Plate at a Conservative Plate Margin
-Tuesday 12th January 2010
-Location is Port-Au-Prince, Haiti's Capital
-Haiti is a Caribbean Island
Haiti Eathquake - Primary Impacts
-316,000 people died
-1 million people were made homeless
-250,000 homes and 300,000 other buildings (including the Presidential Palace) were destroyed
-Infrastructure and Communications were damaged
-The main prison was destroyed and 4,000 prisoners escaped
Haiti Eathquake - Secondary Impacts
-1 in 5 people lost their jobs
-The number of dead meant that hospitals and morgues became full, so bodies were piled up on the streets and diseases like Cholera spread quickly
-It was hard to get aid into the area because of poor management
-Huge shanty towns developed which caused widespread poor sanitation, illness and looting
Haiti Eathquake - Short Term Response
-$100 million given in aid by the USA
-$330 million given in aid by the EU
-810,000 people placed in camps
-115,000 tents and over a millions tarpaulin shelters were given out
-Healthcare supplies provided
-4.3 million were provided with food
Haiti Eathquake - Long Term Response
-98% of rubble hadn't been cleared
-1 million people were still homeless after one year
-Unemployed people were supported through cash or food for work projects
-Temporary schools created
-Water and sanitation provided to 1.7 million people
Kobe Earthquake - Cause and Background Info
-The Earthquake measure 7.2 on the Richter Scale and was caused by the Philippines Plate being subducted under the Eurasian Plate. This plate margin runs beneath Kobe
-Occured on 17th January 1995
-Kobe is located in SE Japan and is the second biggest urban area after Tokyo.
Kobe Earthquake - Primary Impacts
-6,343 people died
-300,000 people became homeless
-40,000 people were seriously injured
-£100 billion worth of damage was done to homes and infrastructure
-130km of railway was destroyed
Kobe Earthquake - Secondary Impacts
-Overall, $220 billion of damage was done
-2 million homes were left without water and 1 million without water
-Fire engulfed the Western Parts of the city, destroying 7,500 wooden homes
-Liquefaction (land turning liquid) of reclaimed land occured
-Disruption to schooling
Kobe Earthquake - Short Term Response
-All hospitals used for Earthquake damage
-Search operation for lost people got underway
-Retailer 7-Eleven provided essentials for people
-Motorola maintained free phone connections
-Food, blankets and medical supplies were distributed
-Temporary shelters set up for 300,000 homeless people
Kobe Earthquake - Long Term Response
-Port was 80% operational after 1 year
-Railways 80% operational within 1 month
-Building policy changed, so buildings had to be build further apart to stop domino effect and buildings were more earthquake proof
-Earthquake Drills and Education occurs in Kobe
-Text messages now go out to residents if an Earthquake is about to happen.
Japanese Tsunami - Cause and Background Info
-Tsunami caused by Magnitude 9 Earthquake. The Tsunami was a secondary impact of this
-The Plate Margin involved was a Subduction Zone between the Pacific and Eurasian Plates
-The Main area affected was the city of Sendai, NE Japan
-Took place on 11th March 2011
-Tsunami waves reached heights of 30m
Japanese Tsunami - Secondary Effects
-There were 3 reactor Meltdowns at the Fukashima Nuclear Power Plant, causing a 20km exclusion zone
-Economic losses for Japan totalled $235 billion
-All of Japan's ports had to close temporarily
Japanese Tsunami - Primary Effects
-15,845 people died
-26,992 people were injured
-3,115 people were missing
-130,000 buildings collapsed
-700,000 buildings were partially damaged
-Huge infrastructural damage across NE Japan
-4.4 million homes were without power and 1.5 million without water
Japanese Tsunami - Short Term Responses
-The Self Defence Force were sent in to rescue people
-People moved to higher ground
-Japan Earthquake Relief Organisations handed out water bottles
-All emergency services helped with the rescue operation
-Shelter, medical aid and food was given out
-Fukashima Workers worked bravely to prevent Nuclear Explosion
-100,000 people helped in the disaster relief effort
-230 Red Cross Teams helped
Japanese Tsunami - Long Term Responses
-After 6 days, the motorway was repaired
-20km exclusion zone established around the Fukashima Nuclear Power Plant
-The Japanese Meteorological Agency increased seismometers and created TV and Text Message alert systems xcalled the EEW
-Sea wall rebuilt and extended