Terms in this set (36)
Why is First Aid Important?
it is better to know first aid and not need it than to need first aid and not need it than to need first aid and not know it.
First aiders do not diagnose
Who needs First Aid?
Intentional and unintentional injuries constitute a major threat to public health and are preferred to as the neglected epidemic.
4. Injuries treated by first aiders, 3. Injuries resulting in treatment in in emergency departments and physician officers 2. injuries requiring hospitalization 1. Injuries resulting in death
One in four people experiences ____
Every year, one in four people experiences a nonfatal injury serious enough to need medical care or to restrict activity for at least one day. Sport-related nonfatal injuries are treated in hospital emergency departments more than any other type of unintentional injury.
A delay of as little as ________?
A delay of a little as 4 minutes when a person's heart stops can mean death. Most injuries don not require lifesaving efforts.
Value to self
Allows one to care for his or her injuries. Allows one to direct others in proper care if they are too seriously injured. helps develop safety awareness and promote injury prevention
Value to others
allows the trained person to offer proper assistance to family members, coworkers, acquaintances, and strangers
Value in remote areas:
Some settings demand that people be prepared to give first aid for an extended time:
urban areas after a disaster
Extra skills are sometimes required when delivering first aid in remote locations
What is first aid?
is the immediate care given to a person who has been injured or is suddenly ill.
does not take the place of proper medical care
First aid can mean....
life versus death. Rapid recovery versus long hospitalization. temporary versus permanent disability
first aid includes
First aid includes treatments that people can give themselves. Recognizing a serious medical emergency and knowing how to get help could be crucial in saving a life
First Aid supplies
the supplies should be customized to include items used on a regular basis.
A home first aid kit:
a smaller number of items than a workplace kit.
First Aid and the Law
a first aider can be sued, but the risk can be minimized. Obtain the victim's consent. Follow the guidelines in Advanced First Aid, CPR, and AED. Do not exceed your training level. Explain any first you are about to give. Once starting to care for a victim, stay with that person.
Consent is permission that the victim must give before first aid can be given. It is unlawful to begin first aid without the victim's consent. Touching another person without his or her consent is known as battery.
MUST be obtained from every alert, mentally competent (able to make a rational decision) person of legal age
Verbal: Saying yes OR no
Non-Verbal: nodding of the head
involves and unresponsive victim with a life-threatening condition. A victim who does not resist first aid administration is assumed to have given implied consent.
Ex: you forget to ask for consent and you start giving first aid. If the victim does not tell you to stop or refuse your help, you have implied consent.
Children and mentally Incompetent Adults
Consent must be given from the parent or guardian. When Life-threatening situations exist and a parent or legal guardian is not available for consent, first aid should be given based on implied consent. DO NOT withhold first aid from a minor or mentally incompetent adult just to obtain consent from a parent or guardian.
Consent with children and mentally incompetent adults
A police officer is the only person with the authority to restrain and transport a person's will. Only intervene when directed by a police officer or when it is obvious that the victim is about to do something life-threatening.
an alert and mentally competent adult can reject help. If this happens: explain his or her condition to the victim, what you intend to do, and why it is necessary. Call 9-1-1. Try again to persuade the victim to accept care. make sure you have witnesses of the victim's refusal. Consider calling the police.
once you have responded to an emergency, you must not leave a victim who needs continuing first aid until another competent and trained person takes responsibility for the victim
Failure to follow the accepted standards of care, resulting in further injury to the victim. Not giving good care, resulting in further injury.
Four components of negligence....
1. having the duty to act and not doing anything
2. not giving any care or giving substandard care
3. causing injury or damages
4. exceeding your level of training
Ex: causing further harm.
having a duty to act
you do not have to help a stranger unless you have a legal obligation to that person, or you were involved in the events that led to the victim's injuries
You have a duty to act if you are?
are designated by your employer as the person responsible for providing first aid to meet. Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) requirements and are called to an injury scene.
are licensed by the state to give emergency care and your state requires you to act regardless of whether you are on or off duty. have a preexisting relationship with the victim.
having a duty to act
different standards of care apply to different types of rescuers. Emergency care - related organizations and societies publish recommended first aid procedures.
Leaving the victim after starting first aid, WITHOUT ensuring the victim will receive care at the same level or higher
breaching that duty an act of omission
An act of omission is the failure to do what reasonably prudent person would not do under the same or similar circumstances. Failure to do what a reasonably prudent person with the same or similar training would do in a similar circumstance.
Ex: Forgetting to put on a dressing
An act commission
An act of commission is doing something that a reasonably prudent person would not do under the same or similar circumstances
Causing injury and damages
physical pain and suffering
loss of earnings and earning capacity
Only discuss information about the victim with those who have a medical need to know
the law requires reporting rape, abuse and gunshot wounds
Good Samaritan Laws
Encourage people to assist others in distress by granting them immunity against lawsuits
Good Samaritan laws protect ________
Good Samaritan laws protect the rescuer: acting during an emergency. Acting in good faith with good intentions. Acting without compensation. Not guilty of malicious misconduct or gross negligence toward the victim.
Good Samaritan Laws
Good Samaritan laws do not:
Protect first aiders who have caused further injury to a victim
Protect those who have poorly given first aid
protect those who have exceeded the scope of training
It is easier to prevent an injury than it is to treat one.
Effective prevention uses a combination of the 3 Es
Education interventions attempt to change ______
Education interventions attempt to change behavior through information.
Enforcement tries to reduce dangerous behaviors through the enforcement of laws and regulations
Engineering interventions require no work on the part of the individual
Act of commissions
performing a skill your are not trained to do. Doing something that a reasonably prudent person would NOT do under the same or similar circumstance.
Ex: Cutting a snake-bite, performing A trachiotomy, inserting an IV
The Haddon Matrix
Strategy for identifying interventions; can be applied to any type of illness or injury
Prevent phase: Interventions that attempt to stop or hinder
Event phase: Interventions that attempt to modify the consequences
Post event phase: Focuses on returning the victim to the fullest of functioning