97 terms

CHAPTER 3 Cell Structure and Function

STUDY
PLAY
A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx.
It will be able to attach to surfaces.
It will be less likely to dry out.
It will be more pathogenic
Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.

Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.
pinocytosis
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes
diffusion
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
both active transport and group translocation
component of bacterial flagella?
flagellin
basal body
hook
filament
characteristic of a eukaryotic cell
has a nuclear envelope
more complex than prokaryotes
has membrane-bound organelles
The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions
cell wall
Tumbles occur when
the flagella rotate clockwise
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?
Monotrichous
Peritrichous bacteria make a run when
the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
Lophotrichous and monotrichous
Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of
60S and 40S subunits
Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability
to cause disease.
Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
Uniport and Symport
Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
Antiport and Symport
Bacteria
__________ may have pili.
The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
group translocation
Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?
both facilitated diffusion and active transport
Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT?
Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.
Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?
endoplasmic reticulum
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
responsiveness
A(n) ________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
capsule
Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called
cilia
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have
light-harvesting pigments.
Bacterial pili can be described as
specialized fimbriae.
the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory are true
The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes. .
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
N-acetylmuramic acid
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms
Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.
Gram-negative; membrane
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
the absence of a cell wall
Why is no energy required in passive transport?
The concentration gradient drives the movement
Once equilibrium is reached,
molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.
Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?
Positively charged hydrogen ions
Small alcohols

Correct
the following are component of eukaryotic cell walls
silicates
cellulose
chitin
the movement of proteins through the endomembrane system
Rough ER -->Vesicle from ER --> Golgi Apparatus -->Vesicle from golgi -->Plasma membrane
The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?
attachment
Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?
Ions
Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell
through integral transport proteins.
What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins
A positively charged sodium ion
would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane
the following statements regarding active transport
It requires ATP.
It requires the use of a transport protein.
the following statements concerning centrioles
Centrioles are composed of microtubules.
The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.
Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome.
Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis
the following statements concerning pili
Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella
Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
A
A periplasmic space is found in which of the following?
Gram-negative cells only
Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.
both bacteria and eukaryotes
If a eukaryotic cell suffers damage to its mitochondria, which of the following processes of life would be most immediately affected?
metabolism
function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton
gives shape to the cell
aids in contraction of the cell
performs endocytosis
anchors organelles
the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella
Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum.
A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum. .
Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.
Lipid A is also known as
endotoxin.
The filament and basal body are associated with which of the following external structures found in some bacterial cells?
flagella
The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
bacteria
When the nurse practitioner looked into Nadia's throat, she saw white spots on the tonsils. These were white blood cells attempting to fight off the infection. Which of the following statements explains a key difference between Nadia's white blood cells and the Streptococcus pyogenes infecting her throat?
Nadia's white blood cells have a nucleus while the Streptococcus pyogenes do not
Nadia's white blood cells are eukaryotic, while the Streptococcus pyogenes are prokaryotic. The distinctive feature of prokaryotic cells is that they do not have a nucleus.
function of the Streptococcus pyogenes cytoplasmic membrane?
endocytosis
This is a function of eukaryotic cytoplasmic membranes and is not found in bacterial membranes.
Nadia has an infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Gram-positive cell wall. What distinguishes Gram-positive bacterial cell walls from Gram-negative bacteria cell walls?
the presence of teichoic acid
Teichoic acid is unique to Gram-positive organisms and anchors the peptidoglycan layer to the cell membrane.
the following statements concerning osmosis
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
Golgi body
component of bacterial cell walls
tetrapeptide
mycolic acid
peptidoglycan
lipoteichoic acids

Correct
________ are fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces.
Hami
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways
the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space
Gram-negative bacteria
Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?
A bacterium moving towards a food source
Axial filaments are found on
spirochetes.
the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is
viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.
living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.
reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.
organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?
nucleus
DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus.
The structural framework in a cell is the
cytoskeleton.
The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework).
Where in a cell is ATP made?
mitochondria
What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?
mRNA
The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by
ribosomes.
Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER.
Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?
Golgi apparatus
The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.
Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles
ysosomes
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.
Where are lipids made in the cell?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER
What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?
plasma membrane
The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain.
has a cell wall that contains waxy lipids.
It will be difficult to stain this cell with the Gram stain.
It may be a member of the genus Mycobacterium.
A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?
The cell will gain water
The process of bringing a solid substance into the cell is known as ____________________.
phagocytosis
Archaeal flagella __________.
rotate as bacterial flagella do
Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.
True
Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.
True
the following would be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell
porins
(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
symport
Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
__________ may have flagella.
Which of the following processes can be either specific or nonspecific depending upon the particular molecules that are transported
facilitated diffusion
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria
mycolic acid
the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
small hydrophobic molecules
Paired structures composed of tubulin that play a role in eukaryotic mitosis are known as ________.
centrioles
tubulin
A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.
lower
lower
the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
both fimbriae and glycocalyces
Which of the following is unique to archaea?
hami
Some members of the __________ have hami.
archaea
When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
crenation.
What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?
They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
Integral proteins are involved in
transport function
How does water enter and exit a cell?
By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?
symport