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Visible body Nervous system questions
Terms in this set (100)
The cranial nerves are _____ paired nerves of the peripheral nervous system that connect certain muscles and organs in the head and body directly to the brain.
Which of the following cranial nerves is purely a motor nerve?
Which of the following is the smallest of the cranial nerves?
All of the following cranial nerves transmit both sensory and motor signals except
The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).
_____ fibers of the optic nerve cross over to the opposite side of the brain, whereas _____ fibers continue on the same side.
All of the following are true of the trigeminal nerves (V) except
They perform sensory functions only.
Which of the following is a branch of the motor part of the facial nerve (VII)?
Sensory axons of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) arise from all of the following except
Nuclei in the medulla oblongata.
The fibers of the vagus nerve (X) originate in the
All of the following are true of the accessory nerves (XI) except
They control facial expressions.
Which of the following correctly classifies the purely sensory and purely motor nerves?
The optic (II), vestibulocochlear (VIII), and olfactory (I) nerves are purely sensory, whereas the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI), accessory (XI), and hypoglossal (XII) nerves are purely motor.
If you were describing how the olfactory nerves (I) transmit impulses for smell to a friend who does not understand the process, which of the following would you most likely say?
They pass from the nasal cavity through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid and end in the olfactory bulbs.
Which of the following correctly explains the difference between the rods and cones in the retina?
Cones interpret the color of light, whereas rods interpret the intensity of light.
Which of the following accurately compares the function of the axons in the superior and inferior branches of the oculomotor nerve (III)?
Axons in each superior branch innervate the superior rectus and the levator palpebrae superioris, whereas axons in each inferior branch innervate the medial rectus, the inferior rectus, and the inferior oblique muscles, as well as intrinsic eye muscles.
If you were explaining the functions of the three major branches of the trigeminal nerves (V) to a friend who doesn't understand these branches, which of the following would you include in your explanation?
The ophthalmic nerves enter the orbits via the superior orbital fissure of the sphenoid bone and divide into the frontal, lacrimal, and nasociliary branches to innervate the forehead, lacrimal glands, upper eyelids, ciliary bodies, and sides of the nose.
Which of the following accurately explains the motor and sensory functions of the facial nerve (VII)?
The motor part transmits signals that control facial expressions, whereas the sensory part transmits signals related to taste.
If your instructor asked you to compare the branches of the vestibulocochlear nerves (VIII), which of the following would you most likely say?
The cochlear nerves transmit signals for hearing, whereas the vestibular nerves transmit signals for equilibrium.
If you were explaining the functions and locations of the vagus nerves (X) to a friend, all of the following would be part of your explanation except
The vagus nerves (X) transmit signals that control hearing and equilibrium.
Which of the following accurately explains the role the jugular foramen plays in the transmittal of the cranial nerves?
The intermediate compartment of the jugular foramen transmits the glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), and accessory (XI) nerves.
If you were teaching a classmate about the sensory nerves of the tongue, which of the following would you exclude from your lecture?
The mandibular division of the hypoglossal nerve
All of the following are considered to be special senses except
The process of smelling begins with hairlike cilia that line the nasal cavity. This lining is called the
Small projections, called _____, many of which contain taste buds, cover the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue.
All of the following are included in the five major tastes except
Impulses for taste pass from receptors in taste buds through all of the following nerves except
The hypoglossal nerve.
All of the following are extraocular muscles that are responsible for the motion of the eyes except
The medial oblique.
Humans have _____ vision because of the overlap between the two visual fields.
All of the following are auditory ossicles except
The tympanic membrane.
Which of the following accurately describes the process of hearing?
Sound waves create mechanical motions that cause fluid in the ear to move in waves and trigger nerve impulses that the brain interprets as sound.
Impulses for equilibrium pass through which of the following nerves to the medulla oblongata and pons?
If you were explaining olfaction to a friend, which of the following details would you not include?
Signals move from the olfactory area of the cerebral cortex into the olfactory bulbs of the nasal passage.
Which of the following describes how the sense of smell differs from the other special senses?
Smell is the only sensory modality that does not synapse in the thalamus before connecting to the cerebral cortex.
If you were giving an oral presentation on the types of papillae, which of the following would you likely include in your presentation?
Circumvallate papillae are found on the dorsum of the tongue in an inverted V-shaped row, and each contains 100-300 taste buds.
If your friend asked you how the process of vision works, which of the following statements might you use to explain it to him or her?
The process of seeing begins when light enters the front of the eye through the pupil.
Which of the following accurately compares nearsightedness and farsightedness?
Nearsightedness occurs when the point of focus does not reach the retina, whereas farsightedness results when the image is focused on an area beyond the retina.
If you were explaining the structure of the ear to a friend, all of the following would be part of your explanation except
The inner ear consists of the auricle and auditory ossicles.
Which of the following would likely be included in a discussion of the auditory pathway?
Impulses for hearing pass through the vestibulocochlear nerves to the medulla oblongata and then on to the midbrain, thalamus, and cerebral cortex.
Which of the following explains how the frequency of sound waves determines the movement of the basilar membrane?
Higher-frequency waves move the region of the basilar membrane that is close to the base of the cochlea, whereas lower-frequency waves move the region that is near the tip of the cochlea.
Which of the following is a similarity between the sense of hearing and equilibrium?
They both occur in the inner ear.
If you were explaining equilibrium to a classmate, which of the following statements might you make?
Commands to maintain equilibrium are sent directly out to the body, whereas information about equilibrium is sent to the cerebral cortex for conscious perception.
All of the following are functions of the brain except
The cranial dura mater is composed of two layers, which are the
Meningeal and endosteal.
Which part of the brain manages balance and posture?
All of the following are functions that the midbrain is involved in except
Which of the following is a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
It supports the brain and protects it from trauma.
Which of the following structures in the brain forms part of the blood-brain barrier that prevents harmful substances from entering brain tissue?
Which of the following is true of the medulla oblongata?
It controls involuntary functions of the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems.
The midbrain contains nuclei, called _____, that control visual and auditory reflexes.
The cerebellum is located _____ to the brain stem and _____ to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum.
Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex are located mainly posterior to the
If you were explaining the cerebrum to a friend who doesn't understand its structure or function, which of the following would not be part of your explanation?
Its hemispheres are symmetrical in function.
Which of the following accurately explains the discrete function of one of the parts of the diencephalon?
The hypothalamus manages sensory impulses, controls emotions, and contributes to the homeostatic balance of the autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following accurately describes how particular ventricles are connected to each other?
In the diencephalon, the interventricular foramen connects the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle.
If you were teaching a friend about cerebrospinal fluid, which of the following would not be part of your lesson?
Cerebrospinal fluid is present only in the brain.
Which of the following is an accurate comparison of the arteries and veins in the brain?
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain, whereas the dural venous sinuses and internal jugular vein drain the blood from the brain.
Which of the following is a similarity between the medulla oblongata and the pons?
Both contain nuclei for several cranial nerves.
Which of the following accurately identifies how information is processed in the cerebral cortex?
Motor signals are transmitted mainly from the anterior cortex, whereas sensory signals are received and processed in the posterior regions of the cortex.
If you were explaining the gyri of the cerebral cortex to a friend, which of the following would you include?
The cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic system and plays a role in expressing emotions through gestures.
Which of the following describes a difference between the external and internal regions of the cerebrum?
The external region of the cerebrum consists of gray matter, whereas the internal region consists of white matter.
Which of the following distinguishes the right and left cerebral hemispheres from each other?
The right hemisphere is responsible for visual, emotional, and artistic awareness, whereas the left hemisphere is responsible for language and calculation.
The outermost layer of the meninges of the spinal cord is the
After leaving the vertebral column, the spinal nerves divide into _____, which branch to supply the body.
The first spinal nerve, which supplies muscles of the neck, is called the _____ nerve.
All of the following are superficial branches of the cervical plexus except
The intercostal branch.
Ascending tracts of nervous system fibers in the white matter columns carry _____ up to the brain, whereas descending tracts carry _____ from the brain.
Sensory information, motor commands
Which nerve supplies motor and sensory fibers to the diaphragm and is important for breathing?
When motor commands pass from the spinal cord through the ventral root of each spinal nerve and out to the body to trigger an action, which of the following are the two types of such action?
Skeletal muscle contraction and gland secretion
All of the following are major nerves that make up the lumbar plexus except
The sciatic nerve.
All of the following nerves innervate the shoulder and upper back except
The sciatic nerve.
Somatic reflexes are
Automatic responses to stimuli that allow for fast reactions, before messages reach the brain.
How would you describe the spinal cord, in relation to the brain?
The top of the spinal cord is continuous with the brain, and it transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body.
Which of the following lists the layers of the meninges in the correct order from innermost to outermost?
Pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
Which of the following is a difference between the dorsal and ventral roots that connect spinal nerves to the spinal cord?
Dorsal roots transmit sensory signals, whereas ventral roots transmit motor signals.
Which of the following statements accurately compares gray and white matter of the spinal cord?
Gray matter consists of the cell bodies of neurons organized into horns, whereas white matter is formed by myelinated axons organized into columns.
If one of your peers asked you to explain the functions of the different types of gray matter horns, which of the following would you include in your explanation?
The lateral horn is the central component of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following lists the spinal nerve plexuses in the correct order from lower body to upper body?
Sacral, lumbar, brachial, cervical
If a friend asked you to explain dermatomes, which of the following would you not include in your explanation?
The facial region is innervated by a dermatome.
If one of your friends was confused about the brachial plexus and the body parts it innervates, all of the following could be part of your discussion except
The iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves innervate the skin and muscles of the abdomen, hip, and pelvis.
Which of the following accurately explains the lumbar and sacral plexuses?
The lumbar plexus derives from the ventral rami of spinal nerves T12-L04, whereas the sacral plexus derives from the ventral rami of spinal nerves L04-S04.
How would you describe the path of the reflex arc to a friend who doesn't understand the concept?
A signal passes from the receptor through the spinal nerve and dorsal root into the spinal cord, where it is processed, and then a motor signal is sent from the spinal cord through the ventral root into a motor neuron.
Nervous tissue forms the structures of the
A typical neuron consists of a(n)
Soma, many dendrites, and one axon.
Which of the following surrounds some (or many) axons, providing insulation that increases conduction speed?
A myelin sheath
All of the following are types of neuroglial cells in the central nervous system except
The resting neuron has a net _____ charge inside the cell and a net _____ charge outside it.
In the neuron, when a depolarizing signal reaches the _____, the change in polarity triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic cell.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals released at synapses that regulate the activity of all of the following except
Acetylcholine is a widespread neurotransmitter that is found in all of the following except
The adrenal medulla.
Where are norepinephrine and epinephrine produced?
In the adrenal glands
Which of the following is a brain neurotransmitter that regulates skeletal muscle tone and emotional responses?
Which of the following is a similarity between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system?
Their structures are composed of neurons and neuroglia.
If a friend asked you to explain how neuron cell bodies are named in the central nervous system versus the peripheral nervous system, which of the following would you most likely say?
In the central nervous system, a localized collection of neuron cell bodies is referred to as a nucleus; in the peripheral nervous system, a cluster of neuron cell bodies is referred to as a ganglion.
Which of the following describes how electrical signals pass through a typical neuron, in the correct order?
Signals pass from the dendrites through the cell body and down the axon to the axon terminals, and then they pass to the dendrites of the next neuron or to the target cell.
If one of your classmates asked you to explain the different types of neurons that can be classified by structure, which of the following would you include in your explanation?
Unipolar neurons are sensory neurons in which the axon splits into two branches that attach to the cell body.
If one of your peers is confused about the functions of the central nervous system neuroglia, which of the following would you include in your explanation of the different types and their functions?
Astrocytes surround capillaries in the brain and maintain the blood-brain barrier, which prevents harmful substances from passing from the bloodstream into the brain.
Although the satellite cells in the peripheral nervous system perform similar functions as astrocytes do in the central nervous system, which of the following distinguishes these types of neuroglia from each other?
Astrocytes establish the blood-brain barrier.
How do Schwann cells differ from oligodendrocytes?
Oligodendrocytes have processes that reach out to multiple axon segments, whereas the entire Schwann cell surrounds just one axon segment.
How would you explain the charge changes that occur in a neuron during the messaging process?
Prior to the process, the neuron is polarized; as the signal passes along the axon, the membrane depolarizes and repolarizes again, passing positive charges in and then back out.
Which of the following best explains how neurotransmitters affect an action potential?
Excitatory neurotransmitters encourage the transmission of an action potential, whereas inhibitory neurotransmitters inhibit transmission.
Which of the following is a similarity among dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine?
They are all biogenic amines made from tyrosine.
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