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185 terms

A&P - Test 1 Flashcards

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Organic Compound
Any compound composed of atoms (some of which are carbon) held together by covalent (shared electron) bonds
Organ
A part of the body formed of two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a specific function; e.g. the stomach
Cholesterol
Steroid found in animal fats as wells as in most body tissues; made by the liver
Epithelium (epithelial tissue)
Pertaining to a primary tissue that covers the body surface, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands
Synthesis (combination) reaction
A chemical reaction in which larger, more complex atoms or molecules are formed from simpler ones
Negative feedback mechanisms
The most common of homeostatic control mechanisms. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances
Hydrolysis
Process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles.
Gland
Organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination
Polar Molecules
Non-symmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced atoms
Carbohydrate
Organic Compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose.
Lymphatic System
System consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs and tissues; drains excess tissue fluid from the extracellular space and provides a site for immune surveillance.
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
Nucleic acid that contains ribose and the bases A,G,C, and U. Carries out DNA's instructions for protein synthesis.
Sex Chromosomes
The chromosomes, X and y, that determine genetic sex (XX=femal, XY=male); the 23rd pair of chromosomes
Triglycerides
Fats and oils composed of fatty acids and glycerol; are the body's most concentrated source of energy fuel; also known as neutral fats.
Carcinogen
Cancer causing agent
Solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more components
Transverse (horizontal) section
A plane running from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Atomic Number
The number of protons in an atom
pH
The symbol for hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Inferior (caudal)
Pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body.
Diffusion
The spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement toward uniform distribution of particles.
Receptor
1. A cell or nerve ending of a sensory neuron specialized to respond to particular types of stimuli 2.) Molecule that binds specifically with other molecules e.g. neurotransmitters, hormones, and antigens.
Sagittal Section
A longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions.
Polypeptide
A chain of amino acids
Cartilage
White, semi-opaque connective tissue
Atomic Mass Number
Sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Salt
Ionic compound that dissociates into charged particles (other than hydrogen or hydroxyl ions) when dissolved in water.
Decomposition Reaction
Chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms.
Skeletal system
System of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage.
Midsagittal (median) section
Specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline.
Extracellular matrix
Nonliving material that separates the living cells in connective tissue consisting of ground substance and fibers.
Lamina
(1) A thin layer or flat plate: (2) the portion of a vertebra between the transverse process and the spinous process.
Ligament
Band of regular fibrous tissue that connects bones.
Effector
Organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings.
Chromatin
Structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors (genes).
Nucleus
Control center of a cell; contains genetic material.
Axilla
Armpit
Hypotonic
Below normal tone or tension
Tissue
A group of similar cells (and their intercellular substance) specialized to perform a specific function; primary tissue types of the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.
Glycogen
Main carbohydrate stored in animal cells; a polysaccharide.
Hypertonic
Excessive, above normal, tone or tension.
Base
A substance capable of binding with hydrogen ions; a proton acceptor.
Compound
Substance composed of two or more different elements, the atoms of which are chemically united.
Cranial
Pertaining to the skull.
Glucose
Principal blood sugar; a hexose.
Frontal (coronal) section
Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Crenation
The shriveling of a cell, for example an erythrocyte, resulting from loss of water.
Solute
The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Acid
A substance that releases hydrogen ions when in solution (compare with Base); a proton donor.
Urinary system
System primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.
Plasma Membrane
Membrane, composed of three lamina layers, that encloses cell contents; outer limiting cell membrane.
Abdomen
Portion of the body between the diaphragm and the pelvis
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Nucleotide
Building block of nucleic acids; consists of a sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group.
Muscle fiber
A muscle cell.
Pinocytosis
Engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells.
Cytoplasm
The cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane.
Ventral
Pertaining to the front; anterior.
energy
The capacity to do work; may be stored (potential energy) or in action (kinetic energy).
Dehydration synthesis
Process by which a large molecule is synthesized by covalently bonding smaller molecules together
Anterior
The front of an organism, organ, or part; the ventral surface.
Thoracic
Refers to the chest.
Ionic Bond
Chemical bond formed by electron transfer between atoms.
Pressure gradient
Difference in hydrostatic pressure that drives filtration
Mechanical energy
The energy directly involved in moving matter; e.g., in bicycle riding, the legs provide the mechanical energy that moves the pedals.
Lysosomes
Organelles that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes.
Nucleic acid
Class of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA.
Electrical energy
Energy formed by the movement of charged particles across cell membranes.
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body.
Cancer
A malignant, invasive cellular neoplasm that has the capability of spreading throughout the body or body parts.
Organelles
Small cellular structures (ribosomes, mitochondria, and others) that perform specific metabolic functions for the cell as a whole.
Excretion
Elimination of waste products from the body.
Adipose
fatty
Hypothalamus
Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.
Atom
The smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means.
organism
The living animal (or plant), which represents the sum total of all its organ systems working together to maintain life.
centriole
Minute body found near the nucleus of the cell; active in cell division.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Organic molecule that stores and releases chemical energy for use in body cells.
Molecule
Particle consisting of two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds.
Passive Transport
Membrane transport processes that do not require cellular energy (ATP), e.g., diffusion, which is driven by kinetic energy.
Edema
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in body parts or tissues; causes swelling.
Atrophy
Reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use.
Physiology
Study of the function of living organisms.
Proximal
Toward the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Radioisotope
Isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior.
Intracellular fluid
Fluid within a cell.
Irritability
Ability to respond to a stimulus.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid)
A nucleic acid found in all living cells; it carries the organism's hereditary information.
Phagocytosis
Engulfing of foreign solids by (phagocytic) cells.
Active Transport
Membrane transport processes for which ATP is provided, e.g., solute pumping and endocytosis.
Chemical Bond
An energy relationship holding atoms together; involves the interaction of electrons.
medial
Toward the midline of the body.
Flagellum
Long, whiplike extension of the plasma membrane of some bacteria and a sperm; propel the cell.
Protein
Complex substance containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen; composes 10% to 30% of cell mass.
Steroids
Group of chemical substances including certain hormones and cholesterol; they are fat soluble and contain little oxygen.
Buccal
pertaining to the cheek
Neoplasm
An abnormal mass of proliferating cells; benign _____ remain localized; malignant _____ are cancers, which can spread to other organs.
Electrolytes
Chemical substances, such as salts, acids, and bases, that ionize and dissociate in water and are capable of conducting an electrical current.
Cell
The structural and functional unit of living organisms; contains a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.
Radioactivity
The process of spontaneous decay seen in some of the heavier isotopes, during which particles or energy is emitted from the atomic nucleus; results in the atom becoming more stable
Basement membrane
Extracellular material consisting of a basal lamina secreted by epithelial cells and a reticular lamina secreted by underlying connective tissue cells.
Distal
Away from the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Covalent bond
Chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms.
Exchange (displacement) reaction
Chemical reaction in which bonds are both made and broken; atoms become combined with different atoms.
Connective tissue
A primary tissue; form and function vary extensively. Functions include support, storage, and protection.
Tarsal
One of the seven bones that form the ankle and heel.
Fatty acids
Linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbon chains) with an organic acid group at one end. A constituent of fat.
Isotopes
Different atomic forms of the same element, vary only in the number of neutrons they contain; the heavier species tend to be radioactive.
Atomic Weight
The average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element.
Anatomy
Study of the structure of living organisms.
Chemical reaction
Process in which molecules are formed, changed, or broken down.
Mitochondria
Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities.
Goblet cells
Individual cells (unicellular glands) that produce mucus.
Positive feedback mechanisms
Feedback that tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial change.
Inorganic compound
Chemical substances that do not contain carbon, including water, salts, and many acids and bases.
Kinetic energy
The energy of motion or movement, e.g., the constant movement of atoms, or the push given to a swinging door that sets it into motion.
Monosaccharide
Literally, one sugar; building block of carbohydrates; e.g., glucose.
Carpal
One of the eight bones of the wrist.
Glycerol
A modified simple sugar (a sugar alcohol).
Interstitial fluid
Fluid between the cells.
Muscular system
The organ system consisting of the skeletal muscles of the body and their connective tissue attachments.
Microvilli
Tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption.
Hyaline
Glassy; transparent.
Endocrine system
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones.
Phospholipid
Modified lipid containing phosphorus
Brachial
Pertaining to the arm.
Radiant (electromagnetic) energy
Energy form that travels in waves.
Cervical
Refers to the neck or the necklike portion of an organ or structure.
Polysaccharide
Literally, many sugars, a polymer of linked monosaccharides; e.g., starch, glycogen.
Electron
Negatively charged subatomic particle; orbits the atom's nucleus.
Metastasis
The spread of cancer from one body part or organ into another not directly connected to it.
Amino acid
Organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; building block of protein.
Valence shell
Outermost electron shell (energy level) of an atom that contains electrons.
Proton
Subatomic particle that bears a positive charge; located in the atomic nucleus.
Lipid
Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples are fats and cholesterol.
Ion
Atom with a positive or negative electric charge.
Ribosomes
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Atomic symbol
The one- or two-letter symbol used to indicate an element; usually the first letter(s) of the element's name
Disaccharide
Literally, double sugar; e.g., sucrose, lactose.
Nucleoli
Dense spherical bodies in the cell nucleus involved with ribosomal subunit synthesis and storage.
Element
One of a limited number of unique varieties of matter that composes substances of all kinds; e.g., carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
Hydrogen bond
Weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron-hungry atoms. An important intramolecular bond.
Cytokinesis
The division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided.
Neutron
Uncharged subatomic particle; found in the atomic nucleus.
Mitosis
Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Polar molecules
Nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced atoms.
Inguinal
Pertaining to the groin region.
Organ system
A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function; e.g., the nervous system.
Osmosis
Diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one.
Epithelium (epithelial tissue)
Pertaining to a primary tissue that covers the body surface, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands.
Chromosomes
Barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division.
Tendon
Cord of dense fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone
Homeostasis
A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body.
Gene
One of the biological units of heredity located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information.
Ulcer
Lesion or erosion of the mucous membrane, such as gastric ulcer of stomach.
Mucous membranes
Membranes that form the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts).
Arrector pili
Tiny, smooth muscles attached to hair follicles; cause the hair to stand upright when activated.
Malignant
Life threatening; pertains to neoplasms that spread and lead to death, such as cancer
Serous membrane
Membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body (except for joint cavities); serosa
Mucus
A sticky, thick fluid secreted by mucous glands and mucous membranes; keeps the free surface of membranes moist.
Articular capsule
Double-layered capsule composed of an outer fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane; encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint.
Sebaceous glands (oil glands)
Epidermal glands that produce an oily secretion called sebum.
Keratin
Water-soluble protein found in the epidermis, hair, and nails that makes those structures hard and water-repellent; precursor is keratohyalin.
Serous fluid
Clear, watery fluid secreted by cells of a serous membrane.
Synovial membrane
Membrane that lines the capsule of a synovial joint.
Sebum
Oily secretion of sebaceous glands.
Squamous
(1) flat, scalelike; (2) pertaining to flat, thin cells that form the free surface of some epithelial tissues.
Stratum
A layer.
Acne
Inflammatory disease of the skin; infection of the sebaceous glands.
Peritoneum
Serous membrane lining the interior of the abdominal cavity and covering the surfaces of abdominal organs.
Apocrine gland
The less numerous type of sweat gland; produces a secretion containing water, salts, proteins,and fatty acids.
Sudoriferous gland
Epidermal gland that produces sweat.
Allergy (hypersensitivity)
Overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen.
Dermis
Layer of skin deep to the epidermis; composed of dense irregular tissue.
Pleura
Two-layered serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and covers the external surface of the lung.
Integumentary system
Skin and its derivatives; provides the external protective covering of the body.
Epidermis
Superficial layer of the skin; composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Melanin
Dark pigment formed by cells called melanocytes; imparts color to skin and hair.
Exocrine glands
Glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a particular site.
Cutaneous membrane
The skin; composed of epidermal and dermal layers.
Melanocyte
A cell that produces melanin.
Sweat gland
Sudoriferous gland - Epidermal gland that produces sweat.
Dermatitis
An inflammation of the skin; nonspecific skin allergies.
Subcutaneous
Beneath the skin.