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exam 4 posi study guide
Terms in this set (138)
Special sessions of the Texas legislature ______.
can only be called by the governor
Which of the following is true about the compensation received by the Texas legislature?
The Texas legislature's salaries have not increased since 1975.
The Texas legislature is ______, meaning that it has two chambers: the senate and the house of representatives
Which of the following would be barred from holding a seat in the Texas state government?
a convicted felon
The Texas legislature has ______ permanent and session-only staff than most other states.
In the election that follows reapportionment, how many seats in the Texas Senate are up for election?
Which of the following is true of single-member districts?
A party or candidate must only win a plurality in order to win one seat.
Each legislative district in Texas elects ______ member(s) for each senatorial district and ______ member(s) for each house district.
According to the current law, legislative districts must be approximately equal in population and should also allow for ______
Texas Democrats managed to win 17 of 32 congressional seats up for election the 2002 election cycle. What happened next?
U.S. House Majority Leader Tom Delay proposed an unprecedented mid-decade redistricting.
What U.S. Supreme Court decision, decided in 1962, stated that "one man's vote" should equal any others "as nearly as practicable"?
- Baker v. Carr
Political gerrymandering refers to legislative districts drawn to the advantage of ______.
a political party
The initial redistricting maps drawn by the Texas legislature in 2011 favored ______. -
Which of the following refers to the drawing of legislative districts to create minority districts?
One of the major reasons for a lack of competition in Texas legislative races is ______.
racial and political gerrymandering
Most of the money contributed to a state legislator's election campaign comes from
contributors who live outside the representative's district
For candidates who are not facing opposition, money ______.
continues to come in from various sources
As of 2019, Tom Craddick, the representative with the longest tenure of service, has served ______ years
In the Texas legislature, power over the outcome of legislation is ______.
concentrated in leadership positions
Which of the following is true of the Texas lieutenant governor's power?
The lieutenant governor must forge an alliance with key senators to effectively utilize the powers of the office.
Members of the Texas legislature are limited to how many terms in office? -
the Texas legislature is not term limited
Which of the following could be a factor contributing to the high turnover among state legislators in Texas?
Once it passes, how does a budget bill differ from other legislative bills in Texas?
it goes to the comptroller before it goes to the governor fir signature
In the Texas legislature, power over the outcome of legislation is ______
concentrated in leadership positions
What was established by the Texas legislature to review state agencies and determine whether they should be continued or abolished? -
Sunset Advisory Committee
Because Texas must have a balanced budget, each bill considered by the Texas legislature must have ______.
a fiscal note that explains the cost of the bill to the state if it is adopted
when the Texas governor receives a bill, how long does he have to either sign it or veto it
most bills that die in the text legislature do so
at the committee level
which of the following Texas speakers was known for being mild-mannered and bipartisan
legislators in Texas are most likely to
champion local interests
What former Texas governor became president of the U.S.?
George w bush
what is the approximate amount of the Texas governor's annual salary?
what happens if a governor if Texas dies or leaves office during his or her term?
the lieutenant governor becomes governor
Because voters elect many important state administrators, the Texas governor's ability to control administrative functions through appointive and removal powers is
what former Texas governor served in the trump administration as secretary of energy?
texas has approximately how many state boards and commissions?
At what point in Texas history was the idea of electing almost all officeholders reintroduced?
states in what region of the country were the last to move to longer terms for governors?
if a Texas governor were impeached, he or she would be convicted where?
which of the following best describes governors' roles with respect to their political party in Texas during the one-party era?
governors had ultimate control over their party in the state
members of senate boards and commissions are
appointed by the governor
the term _____ implies a hierarchy of offices with levels of power leading to a centralized controlling authority
the state legislature can override a line-item veto by a_____ vote of each house
judicial agencies are under the supervision of the
State Supreme Court
the_______ powers of governor include the ability to issue pardons, executive clemency, and parole for citizens convicted of a crime
appointed by the governor, the Texas board of pardons and paroles is made up of_____ members
an __________ board or commission is one whose membership is completely or partially made up of designated state officials whose are members because of the position they hold
in giving commencement speeches, making presentations, and cutting ribbons governors are performing their__________duties
One benefit resulting from establishment of the Sunset Advisory Commission is
improved efficiency in the state government
in the past, Texas governors have appointed individuals to their staff_______
based on political loyalty rather than professionalism
a civil case is typically decided using which standard of proof?
a preponderance of the evidence
in a criminal case, _________ brings the case against someone accused of committinga crime against society
how may levels of courts do most state court systems have?
although statues may create general requirements, courts often ask if there are special circumstances that should lead the court to deal with a particular individual differently. this can be described as_________
a hearing before a judge who decides is a person must stand trial is known as a_____
_____________ courts hear all cases involving violations of city ordinances
all of the following are regarded as major criminal cases (felonies ) and civil cases that are heard in the district court level, except____________
why are death penalty cases automatically appealed in Texas?
to ensure procedural accuracy
Most criminal cases can be decided by a ____________ jury, which is a jury of citizens that determines the guilt or innocence of a person during trial
primary__________ states have several courts of appeal
all of the following case types are heard by country except
murder and car theft cases
trial court judges are elected for____________terms, and appellate court judges are elected for _________ terms
4 year; 6 year
what method of judicial selection is used in Texas?
under the merit plan, how do judges first assume the bench?
they are appointed by the governor from a list supplied by a judicial panel
in texas, straight-ticket voting sometimes causes problems in judicial elections in that it allows notably_________ candidates to gain seats on the courts
which of the following best characterized the comparison between African Americans in the Texas judiciary and in the population at large?
the percentage of African Americans in the judiciary is significantly lower than in the population at large
poll taxes where used in Texas until
what is the result of having "deadwood" on voter registration lists?
distorted counts of registered voters
why was Texas subject to section 5 the preclearance provisions, of the voting rights act?
it has a history of discriminatory electoral practices
those who oppose voter id laws believe that such laws
restrict the right to vote
what was an outcome of the supreme courts 1935 ruling that held political parties were private organizations?
African Americans were legally barred from participating in democratic primaries in Texas
after the 24th amendment to the us constitution eliminated the poll tax as a requirement in federal elections,___________
Texas still required it for voting in state elections
the history of restricting access to voting in techs is very much in line with Texas _______ political culture
in what year did the us Supreme Court finally acknowledge that non-africana Americans were discriminated against under Jim crows laws and that they were legally protected by the 14th amendment?
Given the low probability that any individual will be a "pivotal" voter in a large-scale election, for many individual voters, voting is____
low levels of voter turnout in texas is _____
caused by a combination of social, economic and other factors
What is a "late train" political contribution?
Candidates loan themselves money that they can later repay.
Campaigns precede elections, often by
a year or more
which of the following id the most essential element of any democracy
Vicente Gonzales, who became the us representative for Texasb15th congressional district in 2016, received most (76%)of his from ________
voters who are able to vote in any primary regardless of their part affiliation live in a state with an ________primary system
which ballot format increases the likelyhood of straight-ticket voting?
since 2008, all 254 counties in Texas have use what type of voting system?
about 8.3 million texans voted in 2018 governors race. how many signatures would an independent statewide candidate need in order to appear on the 2020 general election ballot?
Under the "sore loser law", who would be prevented from running as an independent in a general election?
a candidate who was defeated that year in either primary
Minor parties enjoy which benefit according to the Texas Election Code?
minor parties are exempt from petition process and can nominate candidates through a convection or caucus
What must a candidate do in order to run as an independent for statewide office in Texas?
file a petition with a specified number of signatures
which primary format allows voters to register or change their party affiliation on Election Day?
in 2013 the us supreme court struck down the section of the voting rights act that
allowed the federal government to oversee the operation of elections in certain states
the time an meths of conducting primary elections in Texas is set by the
texas election code
push polls are best described as
what is the literal meaning of "democracy"?
rule by the people
at the time of the founding of the union, jeunalists were called
which of the following refers to engagement in the public sphere that encompasses all media and messages between and among citizens, the media, and the governing elite?
the media is typically categorized by
the type of message and type of media
in 1948, texas first television station began operating and broadcast a speech by whom?
president harry truman
recent research shows that _________ remain the most effective single medium available for the acquisition of political information
the telegraph and texas register is remembered as the originator of what rallying cry?
"remember the Alamo"
the act of writing or presenting news stories that reflect a significantly distorted view of reality favoring one party over another in the case of political parties, is called________bias
one manner of free exposure fro political campaigns is
a newspaper endorsement
what requires that a broadcaster permitting one political candidate access to the airwaves must afford equal opportunities to all other such candidates seeking the same office?
the equal time rule
David's Law, passed in Texas in 2017, attempts to mitigate what issue?
bullying on social media
what does the term "concentration:" mean when discussing media in the us?
a few conglomerates have emerged as the major providers of information.
In 2015, the FCC reclassified broadband Internet transmission as a _____, which allows to regulate ISPs, but the protections offered by that decision ended in December 2017.
which of the following was not a traditional function of parties during the era of labor-intensive politics?
running huge mass-media campaigns
the only offices elected on a nationwide basis in the us are
president and vice-president
which of the following is historically true of political parties in the us
they have never been strongly centralized
in the era of candidate-centered politics, mass communication replaced_________ as the promary way to communicate with voters
the republic of texas constitution did not allow presidents to________, leading to elections that revolves around personalities
serve consecutive terms
what was sam Houstons position with respect to the issues of slavery
he opposed it
in __________ politics, prospective officeholders tend to empathize their own characteristics and background rather than an association with a major political party
which of the following is true of party politics in texas from the end of reconstruction until the 1960s?
no republican was elected to statewide office
the only instance of one-party republican politics in texas before the 1990s was during reconstruction under the governorship of
Edmund j davis
what effect does candidate-centered politics have on political parties
it weakens political parties
which techs electoral faction supported dwight Eisenhower in both the 1952 and 1956 presidential elections?
yellow dog democrats
what happened to the party movements that developed in texas during the latter half of the 19th century
they were destroyed by the democratic party
John tower was the first texas republican to ________
be elected to statewide office since the era of democratic dominance began
republicans bounced back in the elections of _________and st the stage fro today's Republican Party
what became the key reform movement after the decline of the populists?
the progressive movement
what catalyst did Phil Gramm use to make his conversation from democrat to republican?
the loss of his budget committee seat
Phil gramm was elected to the house of representatives as a democrat, but he soon began to lean toward the republicans party through his close relationship to which president?
which of the following accurately describes the shivercrats?
conservative democrats who stood for office as both democatic and republican candidates
who is the longest-serving governor in texas history?
pro-business conservatives at the core of the texas Republican Party establishment seek to_______
keep government spending taxes low
what third party in texas advocates social justice, ecological sustainability, nonviolence, and political reform?
unlike the two major parties, in order to get on the ballot, 3rd parties must__________
pay a filling fee or submit petitions signed by 1 percent of the voters in the previous race
what is the most significant reason that there is less factional infighting in the current Democratic Party than in the 1900s?
most conservative democrats left for the republican party
which of the following is true of the libertarian party in texas?
the libertarian party has consistently maintained its status as a minority party guaranteeing its candidates' appearance on the ballot
A Democrat was last elected to statewide office in Texas in
an example of a temporary party organization is the
what are the prospects for the Republican Party gaining ground among Hispanics?
it is unclear
the permanent party organization consists of
elected party officers
of the following, which best describes political parties
quasi party agents
voters are assigned to voting precincts based on
temporary party organizations are held
in even numbered years
what was the chief cause of the incredibly high turnout in the 2008 precinct convenctionsfor the democratic party?
the tight competion between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton
which of the following best describes the way in which texas determines who will bw the delegates to the national party conventions?
though generally based on performance in the primary elections, some allocation is much more complex in both parties.
a major reason for disorganization at the 2008 democratic district and county convections following the precinct conventions was the
attendance of many first timers who didn't know the rules
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