Upgrade to remove ads
BOLD 207 Youngblood Sp14 Final
Terms in this set (94)
Know the identity of the Satan:
"El Satan" ambiguous name for an accuser or adversary in the O.T. Not the same as Satan of N.T.
A member of Yahweh's divine council who tests Yahweh's relationship with humanity in order to purge it of all ulterior motives. An agent of YHWH who patrols earth in search of potential threats to God's integrity)
What is the ideology that the Book of Job is interacting with and refuting?
What is the basic structure of the Book of Job?
- Introduction: setting
- Prologue: 2 rounds of interviews of the satan by YHWH (1:6-12; 2:1-7a) and Job's trials & reactions
- Dialogue of Job with friends
- Speeches: 4 rds of debate between Job & Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar; 4 rds between Job & Elihu; and 2 interviews of Job by YHWH
- Interlude in chapter 28, "Where can wisdom be found?"
What is the basic argument repeated by Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar?
Job's afflictions are the result of sin. He must confess & repent. Their responses reflect the convention of retributional theology.
What is the geographical setting for the book and its significance regarding the wisdom tradition?
In the land of UZ, either in Edom or Turkey. (Edomites known for tradition of wisdom literature?)
What is the genre of Job's initial speech and its significance for the book's structure and message?
Job 3 - lament calling for a counter cosmic curse, the opposite of Gen. 1 (wisdom is found in the fear of YHWH?)
What is parallelism?
Giving lines similar forms so as to group them and give the entire discourse a discernible pattern.
What is a colon?
Basic unit of Hebrew poetry consisting of 2 cola (lines). Terse line typically containing a complete clause
What does "theodicy" mean?
an attempt to defend God against charges of injustice due to the existence of evil and suffering in the world. The Book of Job is an exercise in theodicy.
when two lines express the same basic idea in different words.
A) He has not dealt with us according to our sins,
B) Nor rewarded us according to our iniquities.
Antithetic parallelism -
paired poetic lines that express a contrast between two approaches to life or two character traits. The lines are frequently connected by the disjunction "but."
"Fools think their own way is right,
but the wise listen to advice."
Staircase parallelism -
when a portion of line A is repeated in line B and then line B completes the sentence/thought.
A) The floods have lifted up, O LORD,
B) The floods have lifted up their voice
Emblematic parallelism -
when one colon contains a simile or metaphor and the other contains its referent.
"Then the Lord awoke as if from sleep,
Like a warrior overcome by wine."
Comparative parallelism -
signaled by the words "better" or "more" or some other comparative adjective in one of the lines
"You have put gladness in my heart,
more than when their grain and new wine abound"
when a clause or thought extends beyond one colon and is completed in the following colon. Enjambed bicola do not display parallelism.
A) Praise be to the Lord, to God our Savior,
B) who daily bears our burdens.
(Note how the relative pronoun extends the thought into the next colon. These cola are paired on the basis of grammatical dependence rather than on the basis of parallelism)
What are the divisions of Psalms and their significance?
5 books -
I. 1-41, attributed to David except for 10 & 33
II. 42-72, Korah (42-49), Asaph (50), David (51-65, 68-69), Solomon (72), 51-60 have historic superscriptions
III. 73-89, Asaph & Korah. 73 is fulcrum. Darker psalms questioning God. 88 bleakest psalm.
IV. 90-106, 90 written by Moses. 93-100 "The LORD Reigns."
V. 107-150, 120-34 are Ascents; 113-18 are Egyptian Hallals; 146-150 are the Hallals. 119 the longest. 2 sets of Davidic.
psalms that offer general praise to God for his character and attributes displayed in creation. Psalms of Divine Kingship and Zion Psalms are subcategories of this genre.
psalms that express profound grief over suffering whether caused by one's own sin (penitential laments), the oppression of an enemy (imprecatory lament), or the shared suffering of an entire group (communal lament). Such psalms often complain regarding the unjust conditions of life or even of God's failure, from the psalmists' point of view, to keep certain promises.
Thanksgiving psalms -
psalms that express gratitude for specific acts of salvation in Israel's history or in the personal life of the psalmist.
Royal Psalms -
psalms that celebrate the Davidic covenant and praise Yahweh for his governance through the Davidic dynasty
Divine kingship psalms -
psalms that celebrate Yahweh's rule over all creation even in the absence of the Davidic dynasty. Most of these psalms contain the phrase "The LORD reigns" (Yahweh malak) usually at the beginning or end or both.
Imprecatory Psalms -
psalms that ask God to enact curses upon one's enemies.
Torah psalm -
a hymn that praises God for the beauty and wisdom of the law (torah).
Wisdom psalm -
a hymn that praises God for the display of his wisdom in creation and for making that wisdom accessible to humans
Psalms of Ascent -
Psalms 120 - 134 all of which contain the heading "A Psalm of Ascents" and all of which apparently were sung during pilgrimage to Mt. Zion or as they climbed steps to the temple
Psalms of Confidence -
psalms that encourage sufferers to maintain trust in God despite circumstances (e.g. Ps 23; Ps. 73)
Psalms of Remembrance -
psalms that review Israel's history as evidence of divine faithfulness despite human failure.
Zion psalms -
Psalms that express praise for YHWH's choice of Zion as his holy dwelling place.
Hallel psalms -
A hymn that begins or ends with the imperative "hallelujah" and builds into a climax of praise. The Psalter contains two sections of hallel hymns. THe first is Pss 113-118 (Egyptian Hallels) and the second is Pss 145-150 (The Great Hallel's).
Be familiar with the relationship between the psalms and the NT:
Most quoted. Many contain messianic prophecies.
Know what the Hallel psalms are and what role they play in the book:
Hymn begins or ends with the imperative "hallelujah" and builds a climax of praise.
Who is Lady Wisdom and Dame Folly and why are they significant?
Lady Wisdom is personification of wisdom used as a lit. device, Dame Folly is the antithesis, willful, arrogant ignorance. A seductress. They both compete for the affection of young men.
Who is Ma'at and why is she significant?
The wife of Throth and embodiment of the Egyptian concept of order and justice challenged Israelite wisdom literature. She is similar to Lady Wisdom
Know the basic definition of a proverb, its genre and chief characteristics:
"short saying based on long experience" And, only those belonging to the proverbs native culture usually fully appreciate its meaning and rhetorical impact. (parable)
Know the relationship between Israelite wisdom and the broader wisdom tradition of the ANE:
Compilation of a culture's sages who tackle life's perplexing problems in conversation with traditional beliefs. There was a complete teaching throughout the known world. Variety of forms: provers, dialogues/disputations, essays/speeches.
What is the significance of the "fear of YHWH" in the book of Proverbs?
Fear of YHWH = wisdom, rejection of evil. Its framework.
Instruction of Amenemope is important for interpreting Proverbs how?
Famous collection of 30 Egyptian wisdom sayings that find a close parallel in proverbs 22:17-23:11
Know the significance of the closing acrostic poem in Proverbs in praise of the excellent wife
Acrostic- Poems that are arranged according to the Hebrew alphabet in which the first letter of the first word of each line or each stanza begins with successive letters of the alphabet (e.g. Psalm 119; Lamentations, Prov. 31)
Know who Agur and Lemuel were and their contributions to Proverbs.
Gentile kings appear in Proverbs to YHWH. Agur in ch. 30 and Lemuel in 31, who might have been Solomon or Hezikiah
Who or what is Qoheleth? (It is both a who and a what):
Preacher/priest and Hebrew name for Ecclesiastes
The Hebrew term "hevel" (Meaningless) means what and why is it significant in Ecclesiastes?
Vanity, meaningless, mist, vapor, [breathe/empty] Frame Narrator described 'Qoheleth's teachings. Poetic not literal
Know the difference between the frame narrator's theology and Qoheleth's theology:
A literary figure in beginning and end of Ecc. who introduces Qoheleth. He agrees with some of the teaching but questions conclusion. He believes in seeking LORD and an afterlife. Q does not so seeks only pleasure before turning back into dust.
Know what a wasf is and on what occasion it was recited:
wasf: sensual description of the lovers body from head to toe. Syrian wedding ceremonies.
Know the dominant imagery/metaphor of the book:
Garden (return to Eden)Floral imagery: female, Fauna imagery: male, bounding over mountains (nothing can keep him from her, foliage (protection from voyeurism
Know the book's basic genre and the proper way to read its erotic message:
Erotic poetic dialogue. Read it as a dialog between lovers
Know the basic forms divination mentioned in the Bible and their distinction from prophecy:
Divination- the attempt to determine or alter the course of the future by means of manipulative magic.
Extispicy- examining the entrails of sacrificial animals in search of omens
Cleromancy- casting lots to determine the divine will.
Necromancy- consulting with the dead for information about the future or the spirit world
Belomancy- shooting arrows to determine what one should do or a future outcome
Importance of the Divine Council for prophecy.
If a prophet performs signs and wonders but worships other gods, don't listen to him.
Know what a covenant lawsuit (rib) and what role the prophets played in them:
covenant lawsuit/charge, Prophet assumes role of the defence council for YHWH
What single nation posed the greatest threat to Judah and Israel during Isaiah's ministry?
What or who was the "rod of YHWH's anger"?
Who was Isaiah's primary audience?
With what other prophets are Isaiah roughly contemporary?
Hosea & Micah
Know during the reigns if which kings each prophets prophesied and general dates.
To Israel- Amos, Jonah and Hosea
To Judah- Micah, Isaiah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekial, Obadiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Amos and Jonah Prophets to Israel 760-750 under Jeroboam II, Zechariah and Shallum.
Hosea prophet to Israel 755-722 under Jeroboam II, Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hoshea until the Fall of Samaria (722)
Micah and Isaiah prophets to Judah 740-710 under Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah
Nahum prophet to Judah 660-630 under Manasseh and Amon.
Zephaniah and Habakkuk prophets to Judah 640-609 under Josiah.
Jeremiah prophet to Judah 627-590 under Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Zedekiah until the fall of Jerusalem (586).
Daniel prophet to Judah 605-540 under Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Zedekiah and during the fall of Jerusalem and captivity
Ezekiel prophet to Judah 597-580 under Zedekiah and the fall of Jerusalem.
Obadiah prophet to Judah 586-580 after the fall of Jerusalem.
Haggai prophet to Judah 520 during the 1st return of the exiles (538)
Zechariah prophet to Judah 520 Temple rebuilt 516.
Malachi prophet to Judah 460 during the return of the 2nd exiles 458 and the 3rd exiles 445
What are seraphim and what role do they play in Isaiah?
In Isaiah's description, the scene is set in the year that king Uzziah died (c. 744 B.C.). The prophet was permitted, by way of a vision, to look into the very sanctuary of the Lord, whom he saw sitting upon an exalted throne. Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings. With two of the wings the face was covered, with two the feet were covered, and with the remaining two each creature was able to fly.
The seraphim praised God saying: "Holy, holy, holy is Jehovah of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory." What role do they play?
What role does Babylon play in the book of Isaiah?
Babylon is the instrument of YHWH's punishment against Hezekiah and Judah for not trusting Him to protect them
Who is the servant of the LORD (servant of YHWH) in the book of Isaiah (especially in 40-66)
What role does Cyrus play in the book of Isaiah?
¨Cyrus is designated as the anointed one - a kind of surrogate king in the absence of a Davidic King and as a type of Christ - the one through whom the new exodus comes. Thus a "servant song" is devoted to him as well (44:24-45:13).
¨Cyrus embodies roles of Moses (leading the people out of bondage) and David/Solomon (rebuilding the temple).
¨In the absence of a Davidic king, Cyrus serves as the new David who decrees a temple, the new Solomon who funds it and builds it.
¨YHWH's use of Cyrus is an indictment of David's house - an underscoring of their failure and a warning to Israel that her security rests not in an unbroken succession of Davidic kings but in YHWH's grace and power.
Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesy during the reigns of what kings?
Jeremiah - Josiah, Jehoiakim (aka Eliakim), Jehoiachin, Zedekiah
Ezekiel - Zedekiah
During the reign of which king did Jeremiah's prophetic ministry begin?
What popular misconception do Jeremiah and Ezekiel both refute by predicting Jerusalem's imminent destruction?
1. Many exiles under the false impression that they would soon return home
2. That Judah is safe because:
- Davidic covenant promises David's offspring will occupy Judah's throne forever (Davidic Dynasty);
- The temple as YHWH's house resides in Zion (Temple);
- That she occupies YHWH's land promised to Abraham (Land);
- That she comprises YHWH's chosen people (Election)
When did the three deportations occur and what well-known persons were taken in the first and second?
605, 597, 586 BCE; Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel
When did Nineveh fall and what was significant about this event?
612 BCE; It marked the beginning of the end for Assyrian Empire and ascent of Babylonian Empire to superpower status in ANE
What was the battle of Carchemish and why is important to these books?
Last major Assyrian city to be captured by Babylon in 605 BCE, ending the war between the two. The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar then turned his attention on Judah & Egypt, sacking Jerusalem and taking prisoners the same year.
Jeremiah and Ezekiel addressed what audiences?
Jeremiah - Jerusalem and Judah
Ezekiel - Exiles in Babylon.
3 Visions of Ezekiel:
1. YHWH's war chariot (chapters 1-3) - YHWH's freedom/mobility allow Him to attack His own people.
2. Defiled temple & YHWH's departure (8-10) - On this throne He abandons His temple & people leaving them vulnerable to destruction.
3. Restored temple & river flowing from it (40-48) - Same temple will be gloriously restored & His glory will fill it.
3 Visions of Jeremiah:
1. Almond branch/rod - YHWH's protective supervision of His Word and prophet - both will be vindicated
2. Billowing pot - Enemy from the north (Babylon)=hot coals that melt corrosion. Coming judgment will be harsh, but ultimately aimed at Judah's cleansing.
3.2 Fig baskets in front of temple - 1 basket has good, ripe figs=exiles who will restore Judah; 1 basket has rotten fruit=Zedekiah, his court, and those who stayed in land and tried to escape to Egypt in defiance of prophecy.
To what does the "new covenant" refer and which of the prophet describes it?
YHWH's provision of restoration - Jeremiah
What is an acrostic and why is important to Lamentations?
Acrostic: poems that are arranged according to the Hebrew alphabet in which the first letter of the first word of each line or each stanza begins with successive letters of the alphabet (e.g. Psalm 119; Lamentations, Prov. 31)
It names and itemizes grief-works through entangled, chaotic emotions systematically. There will be an end to Judah's suffering.
What event preoccupies the content of Lamentations?
Babylonian siege of Jerusalem
Daniel's first six chapters consist primarily of what genre? The last six?
-Court tales and apocalyptic literature
During the reigns of what kings did Daniel serve in a foreign court?
-Nebuchadnezzar, Balchazzar, Cyrus
Know the city to which Jonah was sent and that repented in response to his meager message
Know which prophetic book is entirely devoted to condemning the nation of Edom for its role in Jerusalem's destruction.
Be able to match the minor prophets with each one's period of ministry [i.e. the Assyrian period (8th cent), the Babylonian period (7th cent - 6th cent), the Persian period (late 6th to late 4th cent)]
8th Century- Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah
7th-6th Century- Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Ezekiel, Obadiah
6th-5th Century- Haggai, Zechariah, Joel, Malachi (4th century)
Know the circumstances of Hosea's marriage and how it reinforced Hosea's message to Israel.
-His wife was a prostitute and constantly ran back to other men that she had been with so Hosea would have to go and bring her back, much like God had to do with the Israelites.
Know which city is the target of Nahum's scathing oracles of doom and why.
Know the significance of Habakkuk 2:4 for the NT (Paul in particular)
-Righteous shall live by faith
Know Amos' main emphasis and know especially the role of Amos 5:24 as a thematic verse in the book.
-Everyone was going to be judged equally on the day of the Lord, Amos 5:24 talks about judgment and righteousness coming in like an ever-flowing stream
Know that the Book of Malachi is in the form of a disputation between YHWH and Judah following the pattern:
accusation, objection to accusation, answer to objection.
Know what connection exists between Malachi 4 and John the Baptizer
-Malachi 4 talked about Elijah coming before the Day of the Lord, which is why the Israelites asked John the Baptist if he was Elijah
Know the ideology that the Book of Job is interacting with and refuting
Job rightly rejects the simplistic theology of retribution. He learned to fear God for nothing, and became an effective intercessor.
Know the book's basic structure, especially the placement of the prologue, dialogues, Elihu speeches, YHWH speeches, and epilogue:
Interview # 1 of YHWH w/the Satan (1:6-12)
The disasters (1:13-19)
Job's reaction (1:20-22)
Interview # 2 of YHWH w/the Satan (2:1-7a)
The affliction (2:7b, 8)
Job's reaction (2:9-13)
Dialogue of Job w/2 friends (3:1-37:24)
4 rounds of speeches
Job's opening statement (Ch. 3)
Debate in 3 cycles
Job's closing statement (29-31)
4 rounds of speeches by Elihu
Two interviews of YHWH w/Job (38:1-42:6)
Know the significance of the Satan's question with respect to the book as a whole
Can a human love and revere God for God's sake alone? Or is it the gifts rather than the giver that is the object of human devotion?
One Cola (he basic unit of Hebrew poetry consisting of a terse line typically containing a complete clause.)
Two cola (usually found)
Three cola (rare, used in staircase and intensive if at all)
Know the basic divisions of the Book of Psalms and their significance:
Orientation: Catechism (straight forward) instruction
Disorientation: Challenge things from orientation psalms
Restoration: Realignment of faith
Know the importance of the Divine Council for prophecy:
Convenes for judgment. Earthly powers will give an account.
Know the three basic historical contexts by which we typically organize the prophetic books:
Who was Isaiah's primary audience?
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah?
With what other prophets is Isaiah roughly contemporary?
Hosea, Amos, Micah, Jonah, and Obediah
Know the significance of the word "evil" (Heb. ra') for the Book of Jonah:
Ra appears 8 times in Jonah. God describes it as great in evil. This explains why God wanted to wipe out the people and city off the map.
...Know that Haggai and Zechariah both prophecy after the return from exile and both encourage apathetic Jews to rebuild the temple and resume the worship of YHWH. Zechariah does so by means of a series of vision (called "Night Visions") while Haggai does so by means of more typical prophetic oracles.
...Know that Habakkuk is structured as a Q&A between the prophet and God regarding the justice of YHWH's using Babylon to punish Judah.
You might also like...
Old Testament Final Exam
Bible 105 Final
OT Exam #2
Other sets by this creator
BOLD 207 youngblood Exam 3
BOLD 207 TEST 2 Lamentations
BOLD 207 TEST 2 Lamentations