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Money or property that is used to earn more money.

joint-stock companies

Businesses formed by a group of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses.


A tool once used by navigators to determine a ship's position at sea by charting the position of the stars.


Sole economic control of a business or product.


A fast, maneuverable ship originally designed by the Portuguese.

Black Death

An epidemic that spread through Europe from 1348 to about 1350 that killed as many as 30 million people.

Commercial Revolution

Period of economic development that began in Europe in the 1200s and greatly expanded trade.


Rebirth of interest in the arts and learning in Europe that began in Italy in the mid-1300s and lasted until the 1600s.

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