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Ap Human Geography Unit 4

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Annexation
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
Allocational/resource boundary dispute
Dispute over location and resources
Antarctica
No one owns it
Antecedent boundary
a boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area...
Border landscape
There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
Buffer state
a small neutral state between two rival powers
Capital
Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country.
Centrifugal
tending to move away from a center
Centripetal
tending to move toward a center
City-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Clevage Model
A political-geographical model suggesting that persistent regional patterns in voting behavior, sometimes leading to separatism, can usually be explained in terms of tensions ptting urban against rural, core against periphery, capitalists against workers, and power group against minority culture.
Colonialism
exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one
Compact state
a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
Confederation
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Conference of Berlin (1884)
Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies.
Core area
a region in the home range that is used frequently. Fruiting trees,termite mounds, sleeping sites, water resources.,
Cultural/ethnographic political boundary
boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity
Decolonization
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
Definitional boundary dispute
Conflict over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or boundary contract
Definition phase in boundary process
The phase in which the exact location of a boundary is leagally described and negotiated
Delimitation phase in boundary creation
in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated
Demarcation phase in boundary process
Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means
Devolution
the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality
Domino theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Exclusive Economic Zone
enerally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary.[1] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state
Electoral geography
The study of the interactions among space, place and region and the conduct and results of elections.
Elongated state
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
Enclave
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Ethnic conflict
type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Exclave
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
Federal state
An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government.
Forward capital
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
Fragmented state
A state that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts.
Frontier
an undeveloped field of study
Geopolitics
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
Geopolitical Theory (aka Organic Theory, Ratzel's Theory)
The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.
Geometric political boundary
A political border drawn in a regular, geometric manner, often a straight line, without regard for environmental or cultural patterns
Gerrymander
to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
Global commons
those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Immigrant states
States with alot of immigrants
Imperialism
any instance of aggressive extension of authority
Irredentism
the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
Landlocked
surrounded entirely or almost entirely by land
Locational /positional boundary dispute
territorial dispute along the edge of two neighboring land owners
Mackinder's Heartland Theory
Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in 1904 called "The Geographical Pivot of History." Mackinder's paper suggested that the control of Eastern Europe was vital to control of the world. He formulated his hypothesis as: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world Mackinder's Heartland (also known as the Pivot Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and Asia).
Median-line principle
an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.
Microstate
A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
Mini state
independent country that is very small in area and population
Multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
National iconography
the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images.
Nation-state
An independent country dominated by a relatively homogeneous culture group
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Operational/functional boundary dispute
Boundaries that move according to operations or functions
Organization of American States (OAS)
an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States.[1] Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas. It is the world's oldest regional organization.
Perforated state
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
Physical/natural political boundary
natural boundary might be something like a river, mountain range or an ocean. These are generally considered to be obstructions which prevent crossing without additional equipment or assistance, such as a boat or horses to carry what you need to cross a mountain range., political boundary would be a real or imagined line in the sand that defines the boundary of a nation or state
Political Geography
The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
protruded state
A type of territorial shape that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory
Raison d'être
phrase borrowed from French where it means simply "reason for being"; in English use it also comes to suggest a degree of rationalization, as "The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone".
Reapportionment
a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)
Regionalism
loyalty to the interests of a particular region
Relic boundary
they no longer exist as international boundaries.
Reunification
the act of coming together again
Rimland Theory
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
Satellite state
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
Self-determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Sovereignty
government free from external control
State
the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation
Stateless nation
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
Subsequent boundary
a boundary that developed with the evolution of the cultural landscape and is adjusted as the cultural landscape changes...
Suffrage
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
Superimposed boundary
a boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)...
Supranationalism
a venture involving 3 or more national states political economic or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
Territorial disputes
Any dispute over land ownership
Territorial morphology
a State's physical shape.
Territoriality
a fundamental aspect of human behavior and refers to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own. In humans it relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice
Terrorism
the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
1994, constitution for the ocean to protect resources
Unitary state
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
United Nations (UN)
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania