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Exam Japanese Advance II

Terms in this set (27)

When you are inconvenienced by something somebody else has done, you can express your dissatisfaction using the ________ _________.

Victim (__) villian (__) evil act (_____ form of verb)

victim is often been unfavorably affected by the "villain's" act. The unfavorable effect in various ways like anger, embarrassment, sad, hurt

1)私は となりの人にたばここ を吸われました。
a)I was annoyed with the person sitting next to me for smoking.
2)たけしさんは メアリーさんに よく笑われます。
a) takeshi is often laughed at by Mary
3) 山下先生は だれかに パスワードを盗まれたそうです。
I hear that Professor Yamashita had his password stolen by someone.

NOTE:
1) Cannot express suffering from an ________ situation. Cannot say 私は雨にふられました。(I was annoyed by the fact that it rained/I was rained on). because 降る is a verb, but you cannot use the passive to say something like "I was annoyed by the fact that the weather was bad" because 悪い (bad) is an adjective.

2) You cannot express your suffering from somebody ______ to do something because you cannot add the passive suffix to an already negated verb. therefore you cannot use the passive to say things like "Professor Yamashita was annoyed because students did not come to his class"


Inadvertent/unfavorable focus of a passive sentence with intended/favorable focus of てもらう (L16)
私は友だちに日記を読まれました。 (passive)
I was annoyed with friend of mine for reading my diary

私は友だちに手紙を読んでもらいました。 (て + もらう)
I had a friend of mine read the letter for me


Not all passive sentence are perceptible unfavorable
NOTES: when saying these, they probably do not mean that they were invoiced by how things turned out. There are relatively few verbs that come out neutral in their meaning when turned into the passive form.
私は その人に デートに誘われました。
I was asked out by that person for a date
私は 兄に 友だちに紹介されました (紹介する)
I was introduced by my big brother to a friend of his
私は 友だちに パーティーに呼ばれました。 (呼ぶ to call (one's name); to invite [u])
I was invited by a friend to a party
その人は みんなに 尊敬されています。(尊敬 respect; reverence; honour; honor)
That person is looked up to by most everyone.

With non-human subjects they lack the implication they are inconvenienced. "Direct passive", following sentences human agent of the actions are followed by ______________
_________ is used to characterize a situation that has "been brought about on purpose" by someone who remains unnamed in the situation

Note 〜てあります describes a _____ state, hence ____ tense

Note:
1) ~てある normally assigned particles ____ (orは) to the noun which is usually marked by ___
3) ~てある is almost exclusively used with ______ verbs (Lesson 14, 144)

Compare ~てある with 〜ている sentences describing current states
〜ている = intransitive verbs
~てある = transitive verbs
窓が閉めてあります。 (閉める= transitive)
The window has been kept closed.
*Can't have direct object so NO を (action in progress) only が/は state that holds after change takes place
窓が閉まっています。 (閉まる= intransitive)
The window is closed
NOTES:
These sentences describe the same situation: the window is closed. However, they had different connotations
Transitive ~てある sentences, the current state of the window is the result of a human action:
I.e somebody closed it and kept it that way
Intransitive 〜ている sentences, there is not such implication of human intervention
I.e. the window is closed, but this way or may not be the result of somebody closing it


寒いので、ヒーターがつけてあります。
The heat is on, because it is cold (= The heater was turned on and had been kept that way, use ~てある)
テーブの上に本が置いてあります
Th book is on the table (- The book was put on the table and it has remained there ever since)
__________ sentence
You can describe who makes someone do something and who lets someone do something

2 meanings:
1) "make somebody do"
2) "Let somebody do"
Have to look at context to solve issue:

お父さんは 子供に 野菜(やさい)を食べさせました。
The rather made/let his child eat vegetables
お母さんは 子供に 本を読ませました。
The mother made/let her child read the book

Director (_) cast (_) action (in causative form)

1) The director decides what is allowed and what is to be done. Marked by は or が
2) Cast performs the action and usually goes after に

*There are cases in which を is used instead of に
a) When the caused action is a reflect such as crying or laughing
i) 私は その子供を 泣かせてしましました。
I accidentally made the child cry

ii) アレンさんは 面白い映画を 作ってみんなを 笑わせました。
Mr.Allen made funny movies and made everyone laugh

b) When the verb that turned into causative originally did not call for を. In examples the verbs 行くand 座る do not take the particle を, therefore を is up for grabs for marking the cast in causative sentences. In the example 読む already called for を and therefore not available for marking cast in causative .
先生は私を トイレに行かせました。
The professor made me do to the bathroom
その人は 私を そこに座らせました。
The person made me sit there
両親は私に 本を読ませました。
My parents made me read books
No を after cast because 読む already called for を

3) The action is described with a causative form of a verb




Example: 先生は 学生に 会話を覚え座せました。
The professor made the students memorize the dialogue
In a A ば B sentence, the "A" part describes the _________, provided that the consequence described in "B" will follow

車があれば、色々な所に行けます。
If you have a car, you can go to various places
A=車があれば
B=色々な所に行けます (行けます=potential verb (lesson 13))

かぎをかけておけば、どろぼうに入られません。
If you lock the doors and windows, you won't have your apartment broken into.
かけておけば= (lesson 15) かぎをかける--> teform + おく (grammar= describes an action performed in preparation for something, to complete some action to prepare for the future) -->おく + ば form

大家さんに言わなければ、わかりませにょ。
If you do not tell the landlord, he will never find that out.


You usually use the A ば B pattern when condition A guarantee a _____ result in B

1) 走れば、電車に間に合います。
If I run, I will be able to catch the train
間に合う=to be in time
In sentence 1, is natural

2) 歩けば、電車に遅れます。
If I walk, I will be late for the train
In sentence 2, though not impossible, it sounds rather odd
This sentence can be expressed more appropriately with たら
Example: 歩いたら、電車に遅れます。
Furthermore sentence 2 is not completely incorrect. Embedded in a larger sentence that overly cancels the "good result" implication for example, improves significantly in acceptability.
歩けば 電車に遅れるのはわかっていました。
I knew that I would be late for the train if I walked


Because of this "good result" implication, A ば B is often used to ____ "A." Sometimes the part "B" contains vacuous generic expressions like ________(だいじょうぶ)or いいんです。
この薬を飲めば 大丈夫です。
You will be okay, if you take this medicine

先生に聞けばいいんです。
All you have to do is ask the teacher (If you ask, everything will be fine)